Biblical archaeological discoveries

“Brothers, I can tell you for sure that Patriarch David died and was buried, and his grave is here to this day.” Peter used the evidence of antiquity to prove the meaning of prophecy about Jesus in Acts 2:29.

One

Abel Beth Maacah– excavated pile, city saved by “wise woman” in II Samuel 20: 14-22.

Absalom’s pillar– Located in the Kidron Valley east of Jersualem, mentioned in II Samuel 18:18.

Accho(now called Acre) – city mentioned in Judges 1:31.

Aczib– a city which the tribe of Asher could not take, mentioned in Judges 1:31.

Adullam– secret cave of David in I Samuel 22: 1.

ai– Joshua burned this city mentioned in Joshua 8:28.

Akeldama– The potter’s field where Judas hangs, mentioned in Matthew 27: 6-10.

Amarna– Tablets (dated 1400 BC) in this Egyptian city contain a letter from the ruler of Jerusalem (Jerusalem) warning Pharaoh that all the cities of Canaan were besieged by Khabiri (Hebrews).

Anathoth– The priest Abiathar, mentioned in I Kings 2:26, ​​and of the prophet Jeremiah mentioned in Jeremiah 1: 1.

Antioch– mentioned in Acts 11:26, which was excavated in 1932, a city where disciples were first called Christians.

Antipatris– mentioned in Acts 23:31, where Paul was arrested.

the plain– a dry valley called in Joshua 18:18.

Ararat – mountains where Noah’s ark rested in Genesis 8: 4; Large stones used to stabilize a huge old ship are found in the Luber Mountain area (a mountain of Ararat).

Areopagus– also called Mars Hill in Athens, mentioned in Acts 17:17, where Paul preached about the “Unknown God” monument discovered in 1903 in the city of Pergamum.

Ashdod– The Philistines took God’s ark here in I Samuel 5: 5, excavated in 1962, confirming the destruction of Uzziah, King of Judah, mentioned in II Chronicles 26: 6.

Ashkelon– excavated in 1921, the city mentioned in Judges 1:18.

Asahiah – a seal impression was discovered with the words “Asaiah’s servant to the king” mentioned in II Kings 22: 12,14 and II Chronicles 34:20; he was one whom King Josiah commanded to inquire of Prophet Huldah about the lost law book.

Assur– son of Shem in Genesis 10:22, the first capital of Assyria and named in Numbers 24:22, excavated in 1853.

B

Babylon(Babel) – excavated in 1899, first mentioned as Babel in Genesis 10:10, was also discovered the foundation of the “House of the Foundation Platform (tower) of Heaven and Earth” in Genesis 11, also clay tablets containing refers to the Jehoiachin king of Judah mentioned in II Kings 24: 12,15.

Baruch son of Neriah – a seal was discovered by this scribe who wrote Jeremiah’s words as mentioned in Jeremiah 36: 4.

Beersheba– named by Abraham, who dug a well still found there, mentioned in Genesis 21: 30-32, discovered in 1874.

Bethany– by Mary, Martha and Lazarus, mentioned in John 12: 1.

Bethel– God revealed himself to Jacob, who named this place in Genesis 35: 2-7, excavated in 1954.

Beth Shearim– In this town is the tomb of the Rabbi Gamaliel family. He was the grandson of Hillel, founder of the Pharisee sect. He was also a teacher for Paul and a member of the Sanhedrin. Gamaliel gave his opinion and warning of Peter and the other apostles in Acts 5: 34-40. The simple inscription on the grave reads: “This [tomb] is by Rabbi Gamaliel. “

Bethesda– Discovered in 1888 with its pillars and porches, pool in Jerusalem, where Jesus healed a sick man for 38 years, mentioned in John 5: 2.

Bethlehem– location of Jesus’ birth and Rachel’s tomb still standing, mentioned in Genesis 48: 7 and in Samuel 10: 2.

Beth shan– City mentioned in Judges 1:27 and temples discovered in 1937, where Saul’s armor and severed head were shown mentioned in I Samuel 31:10 and Chronicles 10:10.

Beth Shemesh– City excavated in 1931, mentioned in Judges 1:33, jar handles discovered with the inscription “belonging to Eliakim, steward of Jehoiachin.”

Beth Zur– City excavated in 1931, fortified by Rehoboam to defend Judah, mentioned in II Chronicles 11: 7.

C

Caesarea– City excavated in 1960 when Paul appeared in front of Felix, Festus and Agrippa, mentioned in Acts 23:33; a stone inscription with the name “Pontius Pilate Prefect of Judea” was discovered.

Caesarea Philippi– town where Peter declared that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God in Matthew 16:16.

Kela– City excavated in 1845, mentioned in Genesis 10:11 as one of the first cities built by Nimrod.

Capernaum– City located on the northwest coast of the Galilee, mentioned in John 6:59, an ancient synagogue was discovered, believed to be built on the site of Jesus preaching. The names of Alphaeus, Zebedee and John are found on one of the pillars (see Mark 3: 17-18).

Carchemish– City was excavated in 1914, fighting a decisive battle that ended the Assyrian Empire, mentioned in II Chronicles 35:20.

Colossae– identified in 1835, the location of the church to which Paul wrote the letter to the Colossians.

Corinth– inhabited until an earthquake in 1858, excavators found a 1st-century limestone block, referring to Erastus as city commissioner, mentioned in Romans 16:23; the court where Paul was taken in Acts 18:12 has been located.

Cyrus Cylinder – tells Cyrus’s decree to return Babylon’s prisoners (including the Jews) to their own land and restore treasures to their temples as in Ezra 1: 2,3.

D

Damascus– The oldest continuous city, mentioned throughout the Bible, begins in Genesis 14:15, the street called Equally Existing (in a higher position) mentioned in Acts 9:11

Dan– Israel’s northernmost city, and where Jereboam created a golden calf, mentioned in Genesis 14:14 and in King 12:29, has only been investigated on the surface.

Dead Sea Scrolls– Found near Qumran began in 1947, manuscripts or fragments of every Old Testament book (except Esther) from 100 BC and 68 A.D., tell other scrolls repeatedly about their expectation that the Messiah was about to emerge.

Derbe– a pile located 15 miles south of Lystra, where Paul preached mentioned in Acts 14: 6.

Dibon– City excavated in 1868, Moabite Stone was discovered written in Hebrew, referring to the House of David; You describe the rebellion of Mesha, king of Mesha, and name Omri, king of Israel, mentioned in II Kings 3.

Dothan– City was excavated in 1953, when Joseph was thrown into a well mentioned in Genesis 37: 17-28 and where Elisha had a vision mentioned in II Kings 6:13.

E

Ebla– excavated in 1964 clay tablets with names similar to those in the Bible: Ebrum Genesis 10:21, Abraham, Esau, Saul, Michael, David, Israel, Ishmael and the gods El, Ya (who were sovereign over other pagan gods named in the Bible as) Dagan, Astar, Adad, Kamis, Malik. There are also hundreds of place names mentioned in the Bible, and a tablet mentions the 5 cities of the plain in the same order as given in Genesis 14: 2 (the first time these place names were found outside the Bible).

Ecbatana– city where the Cyrus scroll was found and issued its decree on the emancipation of the Jews from Babylon and for the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerualem, mentioned in Ezra 5: 13-6: 14.

Ekron – city ​​where the ark of the covenant was taken, mentioned in I Samuel 5:10. In 1997, an inscription was discovered in the buried ruins of a Baal temple that identifies it as in the city of Ekron.

Edrei– town where Og, the king of Bashan, was defeated by the Israelites mentioned in Numbers 21:33.

Ephesus– the city was excavated in 1863, where the church was located, to which Paul wrote his letter to the Ephesians; discovered is the Temple of Artemis and identifying inscriptions and the theater, where Paul was mentioned in Acts 19: 23-41.

Erech– City excavated in 1852, founded by Nimrod mentioned in Genesis 10: 9-10, clay tablets show that the early inhabitants worshiped only two deities.

Ebion Geber– The city was excavated in 1937, the site of King Solomon’s fleet mentioned in I Kings 9:26.

G

Gallio– an inscription dated 52 A.D. was found in Delphi, Greece, which mentions that Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, as appears from Acts 18: 12-17.

Gerazim– a mountain where the Samaritans still worship, mentioned in John 4:20.

Gezer– excavated in 1909, Solomon’s chariot city mentioned in I Kings 9: 16-17.

Gibeah– excavated in 1933, the capital of Israel in Samuel 10:26, King Saul’s castle discovered with audience rooms where David played the harp.

Gibeon– excavated in 1957, the tabernacle located here before Solomon’s Temple was built, Solomon chose wisdom here in II Chronicles 1: 3-13, jar handle discovered with the name Gibeon, also personal names of Amariah, Azariah, Hananiah in Jeremiah 28: 1; Gibeon’s pool discovered carved by rock, mentioned in II Samuel 2: 12-17.

Gihon– excavated in 1867, here crowned Solomon; tunnel discovered, leading from spring into Jerusalem, mentioned in II Samuel 5: 8.

Gilgal– excavated in 1955, Israel’s first campsite after crossing Jordan; location confirmed by Joshua 4:19, Josephus and Eusebius.

H

Hamat– excavated in 1872 and 1938 with inscriptions of Hittites mentioned in Genesis 15:20; The king of Hamath sent gifts to David in II Samuel 8: 6.

They will– Abraham lived here on his way to Canaan, mentioned in Genesis 11:31. Mari tablets often refer to this place.

Hazor– excavated in 1955, the city was destroyed in Joshua 11:10 and rebuilt by Solomon in I Kings 9:15.

Hermon– the highest mountains in Palestine; its slopes and peaks were the “high places” of Baal’s worship mentioned in Num 22:41; many ruins of shrines and a temple to Baal on the highest peak were discovered in 1934.

Hosea – a seal was discovered by the minister of Hoshea, the last king of Israel, mentioned in II Kings 17: 1.

J

Jabneh– excavated pile, location confirmed by many ancient sources; mentioned in Joshua 15:11, captured by Uzziah in II Chronicles 26: 6.

Jacob is doing well– located near Sychar in John 4: 5.6; one of the most authentic places attested by the ancient Samaritan tradition and scripture.

Jerahmeel– Discovered was a seal impression of this son of the king, mentioned in Jeremiah 36:26, who was sent to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch (see above).

Jericho– excavated in 1868, 1911, 1936 and 1958; first city conquered in Joshua 6: 1-27; fallen walls and charred remains were discovered during the period of Israeli siege, which fits with verse 20.24.

Jerusalem– several excavations since 1838, links to biblical times are a section of the temple wall, stone carvings of “Haggai, the son of Shebaniah” in Haggai 2:23, the pool of Siloam in John 9: 7 identifying the inscription and tunnel listed of Hezekiah mentioned in II Kings 20:20, inscription at the temple of Herod forbidding Gentiles, inscription identifying the burial ground of Uzziah, king of Judah, inscription on the tomb of the son of the high priest Caiaphas, who presided over the trial of Jesus in Luke 3 : 2 and John 18: 13,14,24,28.

Jezreel– unearthed city at the foot of Mount Gilboa, location of the palace of Ahab and Jezebel, where Elijah ran for his life in I Kings 18:46, where Jezebel was trampled and eaten by dogs, as Elijah foretold in I Kings 21:23 and met in II Kings 9:30.

Joppa– port city, smaller excavations; from where Jonah traveled to Tarshish mentioned in Jonah 1: 3.

K

Kedesh– partially explored, one of the six refugees in Joshua 20: 7, captured in Joshua 12:22.

Khorsabad– excavated in 1842, the capital of Sargon, king of Assyria, discovered annals for his capture of Samaria, confirming Isaiah 20, which was the only pre-existing evidence of Sargon’s existence.

Kiriath Jearim– minor explorations in Joshua 9:17, a city where the ark of the covenant remained before David brought it to Jerusalem, mentioned in I Chronicles 13: 5-8.

Kiriath Sepher– excavated in 1932, mentioned in Joshua 15:15.

Kish– excavated suburb of Babylon dating from 4000 BC, clay tablets showing a pictographic manuscript from which cuneiform evolved, evidence of rapid decline from monotheism to three gods (heaven, earth, sun) to 5000 gods (see Erech).

Chorazin– Synagogue and stone seat discovered as the seat of Moses mentioned by Jesus in Matthew 23: 2.

L

Lachish– excavated in 1938, captured by Israel in Joshua 10:32, discovered, were the Lachian letters written by Hoshaiah mentioned in Nehemiah 12:32 and Jeremiah 42: 1 and 43: 2, and describing the difficult years before the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem; refers to the words of the princes as “weakening our hands” mentioned in

Jeremiah 38: 4.

Laodicea– unexcavated city, home to one of the seven churches mentioned in Revelation 1: 4,11; the contour of the city walls can be traced.

Lydda– Excavated city, known as Lod in I Chronicles 8:12, town where Peter healed a paralytic in Acts 9:32.

Lystra– discovered in 1885, when a Roman altar was found with “Lystra” inscribed in capital letters, on a pile 25 miles south of Iconium; where Paul was taken as a god and later stoned and left for dead in Acts 14: 8-20.

M

Mareshah– excavated in 1900, home of the prophet Micah and Eliezer mentioned in II Chronicles 20:37 and fortified by Rehoboam mentioned in II Chronicles 14:12.

Mari– excavated in 1933, depicting life in patriarchal times; discovered statue of Ashtoreth mentioned in I Kings 11:33 and official letters with frequent reference to cities in Haran, Nahor, Serug, Peleg and Terah mentioned in the Bible and personal names of Reu, Terah, Nahor, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Benjamin and David.

Medeba– a city of Moab, mentioned in Numbers 21:30 and Isaiah 15: 2.

Megiddo– excavated in 1935, it was discovered that there was the signet seal of the “Shema officer of Jeroboam” in I Kings 11:28, inscription of Shishak mentioned in I Kings 14: 25,26; massive stable connections to Solomon’s chariots mentioned in II Chronicles 9:25.

Memphis – Egypt’s capital, discovered, was huge cemeteries mentioned rhetorically in Hosea 9: 6.

Mizpah– excavated in 1935, when Samuel judged Israel in I Samuel 7: 5-6; discovered, was a massive wall built by Asa mentioned in I Kings 15:22, jar handle with “Mizpah” in ancient Hebrew, a seal that read “Jaazaniah, officer of the king” mentioned in II Kings 25:23.

N

Nazareth– Jesus’ home of 30 years, a particular well still in use, has always been the only water source in the city.

Nineveh – excavated in 1845, a city built by Nimrod in Genesis 10:11, and where Jonah preached, discovered, were inscriptions and accounts of Sennacherib’s conquest of Hezekiah and the cities of Israel with careful descriptions of the pampering, but no explanation for his failure to conquer Jerusalem, which was due to a miracle of God described in II Kings 19: 35-36; The last days of Sennacherib described in verses 36-37 are confirmed by a clay cylinder found in Esarhaddon’s palace; Ashurbanipal’s library was found, which contained early accounts of a great flood and creation.

nob– unearthed priesthood at Jerusalem, where David fled from Saul mentioned in I Samuel 21: 1-9.

Nuzi– excavated in 1931, a city of the same culture as Haran, where Abraham lived; tablets show similar procedures to property transfers performed at the city gate in Genesis 23: 10-18, a maid could give birth to a childless wife in Genesis 16: 3, childless couples could adopt a son as heir, but would be replaced if a the natural son is born as in Genesis 15: 2-4 and exchanges a small gift for an inheritance as in Genesis 25: 30-34, blessing a dying father as a legal way to acquire property as in 1. Exodus 27: 30-33, possession of the household gods as proof of estate property that sheds light on Genesis 31: 30-35.

ISLAND

olive– installation in Jersualem with the 1st century Christian cemetery and burial chests with names of Jairus, Simon Bar-Jonah, Mary, Martha and Siloam.

P

Pergamon– excavated in 1878, a city in one of the churches referred to in Revelation 2:13 as “where Satan has his throne”; many pagan buildings and altars discovered.

Persepolis– excavated in 1935, the capital of Darius the Great in Ezra 4: 5 and Xerxes, husband of Queen Esther, where their inscriptions were found.

Petra (Sela)– excavated in 1934, the city mentioned in II Kings 14: 7.

Philippines– excavated 1914 to 1934, the city of the letter to the Philippines; was discovered was the gateway to the river where Paul preached mentioned in Acts 16: 12-13.

R

Rabbah (Rabbath-Ammon)– smaller excavations, the name of this city today is Amman in Jordan, the ancient capital of the kingdom of the Ammonites mentioned in Deuteronomy 2:19 and 3:11, of which people are descended from the son of Lot in Genesis 19:38.

Ras Shamra (Ugarit)– excavated in 1929 and 1939, discovered was a temple library, temples in Baal and Dagon, a belief in El as creator and father of all with Asherah as his conscience, and whom Israel condemned in Judges 2: 12-15 and in Samuel 12: 10th

Rome– town where Paul was under house arrest in Acts 28:16; town for the church of the letter to the Romans; five million Christians were buried in the catacombs discovered in Rome.

S

Samaria– excavated in 1910 and 1935, capital of the northern kingdom of Israel, found foundations of the palaces of Omri and Ahab, mentioned in I Kings 16:24, thousands of ivory pieces designed for decoration as mentioned in I Kings 22:39 and condemned in Amos 3:15 and 6: 1,4; Samaria pool, where Ahab’s blood-colored chariot was washed in I Kings 22:38; inscribed piece of pottery with biblical names of Ahaz, Sheba, Nimshi, Ahinoam and Gomer.

Sardis– excavated in 1908 and 1958, a city in the Book of Revelation; that was discovered was an Artemis temple with cross engraved in many places, indicating that it was converted into a church building.

Shechem– excavated in 1909 and 1913 and 1934 and 1956, the first place Abraham visited in Palestine in Genesis 12: 6-7 and where Joseph was buried in Joshua 24:32; what was discovered was a large wall and a gateway where Hamor and son of Shechem conferred with Jacob in Genesis 34: 20-24, and evidence of the tower of Shechem mentioned in Judges 9: 46-49.

Shiloh– excavated in 1931, the location of the city indicated in Judges 21:19, and the young Samuel served here in I Samuel 3:21; was discovered as evidence of a shortage of remains after 1050 B.C. when it was destroyed by the Philistines as mentioned in I Samuel 4: 10-11.

Siloam– excavated in 1896, this pool in Jerusalem, where Jesus sent the blind man to wash in John 9: 7, can be easily identified at the end of a tunnel from the village of Siloam; has 34 steps cut from cliff and is well polished by foot wear.

Susa (Shushan)– excavated in 1852 and 1901, capital of ancient Elam (son of Shem), scene of many biblical events in Daniel, Nehemiah and Esther’s time mentioned in Esther 1: 2; was discovered the palace fortress described in Esther Chapter 1, the throne room in red, blue, white (porphyry) and black marble as described in Esther; says such used by Haman; The king’s gate where Mordecai sat; the inner courtyard of the King’s house; the outer chamber of the king’s house; palace garden, all described in the Book of Esther.

T

Taanach – excavated in 1904, captured by the Hebrews in Judges 1:27 and a city of supply in David and Solomon’s time in I Kings 4:12; discovered were horse stables as in other strategic cities (see Megiddo).

Tadmor– a city built by King Solomon for trade and defense mentioned in II Chronicles 8: 4, ruins are above ground.

Tahpanhes– excavated in 1886, Jeremiah and the survivors of Judah fled here in Jeremiah 40: 3 and 41: 1-3 and 43: 5.7; and here Jeremiah foretold the overthrow of Egypt in Jeremiah 43: 8-11; to confirm, a fragmented tablet tells of Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion of Egypt.

Thessalonica – the town of the letter church to the Thessalonians; Luke identified city officials as “politicians” in Acts 17: 6.8, which was believed to be Luke’s progress until an inscription was found on a city gate during the period that reads “in the days of politicians …”

Tirzah – excavated in 1949, the capital of Jereboam in I Kings 14:17, it was discovered that government buildings were started but not completed when Omri moved his capital to Samaria; very poor and very rich houses as mentioned in Amos 5:11; destruction of the Assyrians mentioned in Hosea 8:14.

Troas– there are ruins of the city theater, the temple and the walls; place where Paul had a vision of the Macedonian in Acts 16: 8-11.

tire– a well-known port from II Samuel 5:11 and Matthew 11:22 and Acts 21: 7, now a small fishing village.

U

clock– excavated in 1854 and 1919 and 1934, Abraham’s hometown; discovered cylinders with the name of the town, and a prayer that Belshazzar should be “kept from sin” reflects Daniel 4:27 and 34-37.

Z

Sarepta– a city between Tire and Sidon, where Elijah invited me to I King 17: 9.

Zoan– excavated in 1860 and 1929, the city mentioned in Numbers 13:22.

Zora– the location of an ancient rock age from the time of the judges, where Manoah may have presented a burnt offering mentioned in Judges 13: 19-20; Samson’s seat in Judges 13: 2.

SOURCES

Biblical Archeology Review, Vol.21, No.6, 1995 and Vol.22, No.2, 1996.

The Bible and Archeologyby J.A. Thompson. Grand Rapids, Mich .: Eerdmans Pub., 1982.

“Archaeological Supplement” by G. Frederick Owens i Thompson Chain Reference Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich .: Zondervan Pub., 1983.

“Are the Bible Stories True?” in time, Volume 146, No. 25, December 18, 1995.