Chimpanzees – Towards Human and Associated Protection

As scientists collect data, chimpanzees are getting closer to humans. They are conscious, self-conscious creatures with strong cognitive skills and a proven ability to communicate, reason, express emotions, adapt and even manipulate and deceive. With genetic material that is 98.5% identical to that of humans, chimpanzees are more like humans than gorillas. Consequently, there are serious ethical implications regarding the captivity of chimpanzees and their use in laboratory experiments. Below is a close examination of chimpanzees:

Chimpanzees live in areas of 21 African countries that include grasslands, dry savannah, and rainforests. They often live in communities ranging from 20 to 100 members. There are two types of chimpanzees: the common chimpanzee (which has four subspecies) and the Bonobo (also known as the “pygmy chimpanzee”). The former lives on a diet of fruit and meat, the latter exclusively on fruit. Their average lifespan ranges from 40 to 50 years. Chimpanzees are currently considered endangered, mainly due to deforestation and poaching.

I. Brain size / structure / nervous system:

Chimpanzees have a brain and nervous system similar to that of a human. They learn extremely quickly, possess the ability to produce creative responses, express emotions (through sounds, gestures and facial expressions), influence their environment and share the same qualitative pain experience despite a cerebral cortex that is about 1/3 the size is like that in humans.

The average chimpanzee brain weighs 437 g versus 1.3 kg for the average human. When comparing brain size to body size – the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), the average chimpanzee brain registers approximately 2.49 (third of the average human and dolphin’s 7.44 and 5.31 EQ; the Rhesus Monkey rises fourth place at 2.09). This indicates a high cognitive ability.

Both humans and chimpanzees have the same sleeping patterns. This includes the stages of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, indicating that both are likely to be able to dream.

II. Social environment:

Chimpanzees are exceptionally social, consistent with humans, other apes, dolphins and other creatures with a high degree of intelligence.

They spend the same amount of time on the land and in the trees (where they build nests to sleep, although some chimpanzees in the Fongoli savanna of southeastern Senegal spend time in caves) and move from territory to territory looking for food. While a typical community can have up to 100 individuals, chimpanzees often spend time in smaller groups; dependent mothers and their children, but refuse to divorce. Each chimpanzee family (with which individuals have strong ties) is led by an alpha or dominant male (bonobos, although they are led by females) who lead them in hunting, territorial protection and war. Every community is hierarchical in nature, where strength and intelligence provide more respect. Females are the only sex to move freely between communities.

Chimpanzees like to share rewards with a companion. A study by Alicia Melis at the Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary in Uganda has been documented in Altruism “built in” in people by Helen Briggs (BBC News, March 3, 2006) discovered that chimpanzees recognize and value the importance of collaboration. When such collaboration was required in an experiment that required pulling two ends of a rope simultaneously to obtain a tray of food, chimpanzees consistently chose the optimal partner, which, according to Melis, was a level of understanding [only seen in] people. “

Within their communities, chimpanzees maintain complex social networks where touching, nurturing (creating calm and strengthened friendships), and embracing are important aspects of maintaining cohesion. Playing is also an important part of a chimpanzee’s life, especially among young men.

Chimpanzees are among the few species that learn their young skills and culture (which is transferred between communities by females moving between groups). Young chimpanzees between the ages of 6 and 8 (mainly taught by their mothers) spend much of their time learning social skills, community culture and making tools through observation, imitation and repetitive exercises. At the same time, however, there are studies per Recent studies illustrate which traits humans and monkeys have in common – and which do not (Anne Casselman, Smithsonian.com, October 11, 2007) indicate that “human children have much more advanced skills … dealing with imitating someone else’s solution to a problem, communicating non-verbally and reading intentions [of] others. “

The typical pregnancy of a chimpanzee lasts 8 months. Young chimpanzees are weaned from their mothers at the age of three and reach puberty years later. Puberty lasts three years for chimpanzees.

When it comes to treating their dead, chimpanzees often visit to view and grieve the deceased’s body. Then they cover it with leaves and branches before continuing.

III. Multimodal sensory perception:

Chimpanzees and humans use five senses (see, hear, smell, taste and touch) to perceive the world around them. Seeing and smelling, two critical senses used by chimpanzees, are discussed below.

The morphological and anatomical structure of a chimpanzee’s eye is similar to that of humans. Likewise, their vision is also similar. As a result, primates (including chimpanzees and humans), unlike most non-primates that are dicromates (their color vision is based on two colors), are trichromatic. When their retinal nerves receive light, their brains use three fixed wavelengths / colors to create a rich, colored environment. Due to their similar morphological and anatomical eye structure and visual processing, chimpanzees can suffer from some of the same limitations as humans (eg Lucky, a male chimpanzee in Japan suffers from color blindness).

Chimpanzees have an excellent sense of smell, which plays a crucial role in their social interactions. Aside from facial recognition, chimpanzees use scent to identify one another and improve their understanding of another’s mood, as each emits a signature scent based on pheromones found in their feces, urine, and glandular secretions.

Aside from the sight and smell, chimpanzees also rely on hearing (with a similar auditory range as humans), and to a lesser extent on touch and taste. It should be noted that chimpanzees, like humans, when given the choice, prefer candy.

IV. Shape recognition:

Studies have shown that chimpanzees, such as humans, are “more sensitive to concave distortion (important for constructing three-dimensional objects) than to convex distortion”. They also view forms and process two-dimensional objects mentally in the same way as humans.[1]

Based on this similarity and the similar structure of their eye and visual processing capabilities, chimpanzees are likely to be able to match simple and complex shapes. However, more research needs to be done in this area.

V. Mirror Self Recognition (MSR):

The ability to possess feeling / self-awareness (to think about yourself in the physical and mental realms) illustrates a complex level of abstract thinking that is unusual in animals. Chimpanzees have this self-awareness and are capable of symbolic thinking.

Studies have shown that chimpanzees can recognize themselves in a mirror and are aware of their own behavior and body. During MSR tests, chimpanzees showed that they have selective attention (they can watch themselves in a mirror, aware that they are looking at themselves rather than another animal). When chimpanzees were marked with non-toxic, odorless red dye on one eyebrow and the other ear, they went to a mirror and carefully examined the markings on their bodies. Scientific evidence also indicates that chimpanzees and other apes have to some degree “theory of other spirits,” recognizing that individuals have their own beliefs. It is also very likely that chimpanzees such as dolphins and humans can distinguish the difference between reality and television.

VI. Language / communication and emotions:

While chimpanzees lack the vocal cords, cannot speak, and cannot make sound for any human object, they communicate through sounds (eg, barking, honking, screaming, etc.), facial expressions (requiring extensive attention to detail or more than one view) aspect of a facial expression so that subtleties of meaning, which are not always clear, are correctly interpreted), posture and gestures (with hands, feet and limbs). While most chimpanzee sounds are related to a specific emotion, some can be associated with more than one emotion. In addition, for identification reasons, each chimpanzee has its own distinct calls consistent with humans and dolphins that have their own distinct voices and sounds.

Chimpanzees use deliberate communication to meet individual and group needs and to convey their feelings, which are an essential part of their social behavior. Certain communication behavior is passed on from generation to generation.

Below is a brief summary of different chimpanzee emotions and their sounds:

1. Anger: Waa (barking)
2. Emergency: Hoo
3. Enjoyment of body contact: Lip smack
4. Enjoying food: Aah
5. Fun / Excitement: Pant (hoot)
6. Anxiety: Wraa or Pant (bark)
7. Hostility: screaming

A brief summary of chimpanzee emotions and their associated facial expressions is listed below:

1. Aggression: Display of teeth in a wide open mouth with upright facial hairs
2. Anxiety / distress: display of teeth with horizontally recessed lips
3. Intense fear: full open grin
4. Playful: Slightly open mouth in a relaxed position
5. Pouting / Begging: Puckered lips as if offering a kiss
6. Submission: horizontally puckered lips

Chimpanzees communicate about ‘what’, ‘where’ and ‘who’, but about the past or the future. Their communication is immediately based on the present. According to Deborah Fouts, co-director of the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute, reported by Brandon Keim, Chimps: not human, but are they human? (Wired Science, October 14, 2008): “They do remember the past [and can] understand the concept that something will happen later. “

Chimpanzees are also able to understand American Sign Language (ASL) gestures and can learn associations between symbols, sounds, and objects without specific amplification or direct intervention. In the early 1970s, a female chimpanzee followed by four other chimpanzees, Washoe, learned more than 100 characters. Currently, Washoe can use up to 240 characters and even taught her that they are ASL without human intervention.

Another female chimpanzee, Lucy, even acknowledged that word order makes a difference when her trainer signed to tickle him, instead of following her request to tickle her. However, chimpanzees are unlikely to be able to visualize virtual reality based on sounds and symbols the way humans do.

For Valerie A. Kuhlmeier and Sarah T. Boysen, Chimpanzees recognize spatial and object correspondences between a scale model and the referent (Psychological Science, Vol. 13, Issue 1, March 19, 2002), chimpanzees such as young children, “are sensitive to both object and spatial relational similarities between a model and its referent (a person or thing with a linguistic expression (eg. word, symbol) refers). “

Facial recognition is another important part of communication. In accordance with humans, chimpanzees display species-specific facial recognition, which distinguishes between chimpanzee faces more easily than those of other species. However, chimpanzee infants exposed significantly to human faces are better at distinguishing human faces. Per Julie Martin-Malivel and Kazunori Okada in Human and chimpanzee recognition in chimpanzees: role of exposure and impact on categorical observation (Psycnet, American Psychological Association, December 2007) “Exposure is a critical determinant of conspecific and nonspecific facial recognition. Development of facial recognition in chimpanzees in infants (Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi, et. Al. Science Direct. December 20, 2005) Chimpanzee babies, consistent with human newborns, prefer to study facial patterns over non-facial patterns as they develop during their earliest days.

Chimpanzees are generally affectionate creatures that display emotions after their own and other species. They show concern for sick or injured members, mourn the deceased (to the point that a healthy young man died of a broken heart several weeks after his mother died), show excitement and joy while playing, as well as fear and concern. In agreement with humans, chimpanzees have short-lived emotions and moods that can last longer. In addition, studies show that baby chimpanzees have the same emotional range as human babies, but better self-control when it comes to crying uncontrollably. The only human emotion that chimpanzees don’t seem to have is resentment.

VII. Memory:

Chimpanzees have excellent memory systems. They can memorize faces, symbols and numbers and learn specific behaviors that can lead to negative or rewarding experiences.

In accordance with humans, chimpanzees retain a better memory of events that evoke emotions than those that are neutral.

Chimpanzees also have an exceptional spatial memory, that per Chimpanzees map fruit trees mentally (Matt Walker, BBC News, August 6, 2009) allows them to remember the exact location of “a single tree among more than 12,000 others in a patch of forest.” Per Bosch chimpanzees remember the location of numerous fruit trees (Emmanuelle Normant, Simone Dagui Ban and Christophe Boesch, Animal Cognition, May 31, 2009) makes such a spatial memory ” [chimpanzees] to remember the location of numerous sources and use this information to select the most attractive sources. “

In addition, chimpanzees can also make plans (disproving previous thoughts that only humans are able to make such future planning). Since 1997, Santino, a male chimpanzee at a zoo north of Stockholm, Sweden, although calm, has repeatedly made arsenals of stones to throw at spectators for a future “dominance display.” Even more impressive, he even discovered how to detect and break down weak pieces of concrete in his fence to add to his cache.

VIII. Tools and troubleshooting:

Chimpanzees and other great apes are effective users of raw tools (eg Fongoli savanna chimpanzees use spears to hunt and kill bush babies (a nocturnal primate), Congo chimpanzees use a toolkit consisting of thin “brush-shaped” sticks and leaf blades to “fishing” for termites and large clubs to break open hives to obtain honey, Nimba Mountain (Guinea) chimpanzees use wood chopping knives, stabilizing wedges and stone anvils to break open and chop Treculia fruits, all using crumpled leaves like sponges to soak drinking water from tree cavities). In fact, for more than 4,300 years, they have been using tools based on a discovery of stone tools (similar in size and size to tools used by chimpanzees today) used to break nuts (linked to species eaten by modern chimpanzees) in Tai National Park, Ivory Coast. In addition, sick or injured chimpanzees often rely on medicinal or herbal plants as a cure for healing and / or to relieve their pain and suffering.

Analogous to the use of tools, chimpanzees can also reason and solve problems. Using abstract reasoning, like people, they can solve problems without training (eg picking up bananas that are out of reach through purposeful logic).

When it comes to math, especially memorizing numbers, young chimpanzees have outperformed college students (when the numbers stayed on screen for 4 seconds compared to 7 seconds when both performed similarly) and a British memory champion, Ben Pridmore. Based on I am the champion! Ape beats the best of the human world in memory competition (Fiona Macrae, Mail Online, January 26, 2008) Amyumu, a 7-year-old male chimpanzee in Japan, performed three times better than Pridmore when it came to remembering the positions of numbers on a computer screen.

IX. Art and culture:

When given the right tools (eg Paint, brushes and canvas), chimpanzees have the talent to be exceptional artists whose abstract paintings match some of the masters. Congo (1954-1964), a male chimpanzee, painted over 400 abstracts, ages 2 to 4, after picking up a pencil and drawing a line without human prompting. During an auction in 2005, three of the Congo paintings went for £ 14,400, while a painting by Andy Warhol (1928-1987) and a small statue by French master Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) generated insufficient interest and were withdrawn .[2] Since the Congo, other chimpanzees have followed, producing equally impressive works (eg A female chimpanzee, Melody, creates paintings selling for $ 1000 for individuals and $ 7500 for triptychs) and a notable three-year-old female chimpanzee, Asuka, has already made 90 paintings, some of which are exhibited in galleries in Tokyo).

Chimpanzees have an innate ability to distinguish and enjoy music. Based on scientific studies of early childhood chimpanzees (reported by the BBC on July 30, 2009), like humans, they prefer consonants over dissonant music. Moreover, when music was played to cheer up the ghosts of chimpanzees at the Mysore Zoo in South India, someone who had previously performed in a circus was observed dancing.

Chimpanzees also have preferences for television. Per Kate Baker, enrichment coordinator at the Yerkes Regional Primate Center, Atlanta, GA, as told Unnecessary chimpanzees face a hazy future (David Berreby, The New York Times, Feb. 4, 1997), they enjoy National Geographic shows, programs about chimpanzees and the use of tools, and shows with people arguing.

X. Altruism / Morality:

Chimpanzees and other great apes have a sense of morality and fairness, despite barbaric acts during combat. Per Monkeys and apes know right from wrong, scientists say (Daily Mail Reporter, Feb. 15, 2009) They “Provide Selfless Help and Compassion for Troubled Times [and] even seem to have a conscience and the ability to feel a sense of obligation. “Consistent with this empathy and selflessness, female chimpanzees reflect human behavior and play an integral role in conflict resolution; if two male fighters fail to resolve their differences, the women often step in and remove stones from their hands – probably their strengthen community because division and disagreement bring weakness and vulnerability.

According to studies from Emory University, Atlanta, GA, chimpanzees also expect equal rewards for performing the same tasks (they sulk and refused to participate further when others received bigger rewards), indicating a sense of justice and justice. In addition, they were often willing to help others (including people) even when there was no reward.

When a chimpanzee deviates from the community’s social code of conduct, it is collectively punished by the group (as illustrated by a group of chimpanzees at Arnhem Zoo in the Netherlands punishing chimpanzees who showed up late for dinner because no one ate until everyone was present) .

In addition, chimpanzees, like humans, remember who gave them favors (for example, cared for them) and who did them wrong. They are more likely to share food with the former. At the same time, chimpanzees have the ability to forgive as described in a passage in Frans de Waal’s book, Making peace among primates (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990) – “Nikki, the leader of the group, has beaten Hennie during a passing attack. Hennie, a nine-year-old young adult female, sits apart for a while, feeling with her hand the spot on the back of the neck where Nikkie hit her. Then she seems to forget the incident: she lies in the grass and stares into the distance More than fifteen minutes later Hennie slowly gets up and walks straight to a group with Nikkie … [and] approaches Nikkie with a series of soft pants growls. Then she extends her arm to offer Nikkie the back of her hand for a kiss. Nikkie’s kiss on the hand consists of taking Hennie’s whole hand in his mouth quite unintentionally. This contact is followed by a mouth-to-mouth kiss. ‘

In addition, chimpanzees also have the ability to perform altruistic acts, even though most are limited to cases where another actively seeks help. Examples are as follows:

1. When Knuckles, born in 1999 with cerebral palsy, a debilitating condition (affecting 5,000-10,000 babies per year in the United States) that impairs mobility (he was in place before therapy and only ate when fed), was introduced to other chimpanzees at the Center for Great Apes, Wauchula, FL, a haven for orangutans and chimpanzees, they knew about his condition. They consistently treated him kindly and gently (for example, spending time with him, playing with him and taking care of him).

2. Per Scientist finds the beginning of morality in primate behavior by Nicholas Wade (The New York Times, March 20, 2007): “Chimpanzees who can’t swim have drowned in zoo powers to save others,” and often “comfort the loser” after a fight between two fighters.

3. A study by Felix Warneken and his colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, published in the June 27, 2007 issue of New Scientist (Chimpanzees can show real altruism by Nora Schultz) found that 67% of semi-wild chimpanzees altruistically helped an unknown human struggling to reach a stick, although they had to climb a 2½ meter rope without reward. In addition, another group of chimpanzees, who had learned to untie a chain and open a door, consistently learned this for chimpanzees they did not know when trying to open the door unsuccessfully.

4. A study by Japanese researchers at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University (Kyoto, Japan) published in National Geographic (Chimpanzees show human goodwillOctober 19, 2009) found that chimpanzees trained to use sticks to pick up straws (to drink juice) that were out of reach used their training to help others who were not trained 75% of the time when these chimpanzees , which they did not know, seemed to ask for help.

XI. Warfare:

In accordance with human behavior, chimpanzees (with the exception of bonobos) are fiercely territorial and capable of waging war, though primitive fighting analogous to prehistoric man. Even though chimpanzees use stones or their hands and feet in raw fighting, the day of using spears and other raw weapons may not be far behind. At isolated times, chimpanzees also showed the same trends as humans for hate, anglerfish, torture, mutilation and genocide (documented in two certified cases).

The longest Chimpanzee War – the Gombe War (1974-1977), which started when the Kasekela community split into two groups (with the new group, the Kahama community, which moved to a new valley in 1972) and ended in genocide, was documented by Jane Goodall in The chimpanzees of Gombe (Belknap Press, 1986). From 1974, the Kasekela males formed a group and migrated to Kahama area. Once there, they started violent aggression against the Kahama chimpanzees with the intention of killing, because physical attacks did not stop until their victims were completely incapacitated and fatally injured. During the attacks that lasted until 1977, the Kasekela males showed “considerable excitement and pleasure” as they expected to catch and actively kill their victims (mutilated and cannibalistic or partially eaten). The Gombe War only ended when the Kahama community was completely eradicated and their land was taken over by the Kasekela community.

Per Wired for war? (World Science, February 2005), in August 1998, “researchers in Uganda [observed] a group of male chimpanzees beat and wobble around the newly killed body of another male chimpanzee. His windpipe, fingernails, [toenails] and testicles were torn out. “Per War monkeys … is it in our genes? the dead chimpanzee “was [also] covered with 30 or 40 puncture wounds and cuts [with its] ribs protruding from the rib cage. Based on the injuries of the deceased, it was “clear that some of the evil was holding him back while the others were attacking. ‘

When chimpanzees go to war, a group of males usually sneak into the territory of another community and look for isolated males or older females (and sometimes their young) to attack. Consistent with human hunter-gatherer societies (whose war is endemic, with 64% fighting every two years War monkeys … is it in our genes?chimpanzees often fight for resources such as food and women – often exploiting and looting the conquered area. Ironically, human activities such as logging, as reported in the New York Times of May 13, 1997, also contribute to chimpanzee wars as their habitats are taken away and communities are forced to withdraw into the territory of other communities.

XII. Lab research and ethical implications:

With convincing evidence that chimpanzees and other great apes are conscious creatures (improving adaptability and survival) with human traits (eg, emotions such as stress and anxiety), similar nervous systems (enabling them to experience the same qualitative pain and suffering), and more than 90% identical genetic code, ethical factors dictate that laboratory research, which she forcibly uses as non-consenting subjects, is banned, especially since such experiments have yielded little or no tangible benefits.

An overview of 749 published experiments with chimpanzees over a ten year period from 1995-2004 as reported in Chimpanzee experiments: questionable contributions to biomedical progress by Andrew Knight (AATEX, 6th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, August 21-25, 2007) discovered that only 14.7% of such experiments used “well-developed methods for disease control in the Human “and in particular,” no research on chimpanzees made an essential contribution, or in most cases a significant contribution of any kind. “

Per Non-human primates in medical research: sensible or dispersible by Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D. (September 2006), “every area of [non-human primate (NPH)] research provides evidence against its usefulness “on the basis of the following scientific evidence:

1. NRPs do not develop AIDS if they are infected with HIV; experimental results cannot be extrapolated to humans with confidence [and] none of the NHP-tested vaccines were successful in humans [despite billions of dollars in expenses].

2. NHP experiments did not contribute [understand] the hepatitis (HPV) infection, [create vaccines]and understand hepatocellular damage.

3. NHP models have not informed us of the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease [since they do not get Alzheimer’s].

4. Fundamental differences in the symptoms and pathology of Parkinson’s disease exist between humans and NHPs.

5. Of the approximately 150 stroke drugs that have been successful in animals (often NHPs), none have been successful in humans.

6. Hormone replacement therapy that has been shown to be effective against heart disease and stroke in NHPs increased the risk in humans.

7. There are significant differences in viral infection and disease between humans and NHPs.

8. Genetic expression when it comes to disease (eg 20 of the 333 genes involved in human cancer are different in NHPs) is too dissimilar to the similarity found in only 20% of the proteins between humans and NHPs.

Although research on chimpanzees and other great apes has been banned in many countries, it is still conducted in the United States, despite protection under the Chimpanzee Health Improvement, Maintenance and Protection Act.

Misschien wel het meest overtuigende argument om het gebruik van chimpansees als proefpersonen in laboratoria te verbieden, is een studie waarin werd vastgesteld dat overlevende laboratoriumchimpansees leed aan vergelijkbare niveaus van posttraumatische stressstoornis (PTSS) (die langdurig kan zijn en waarvan de symptomen zijn maar zijn niet beperkt tot woede, angst, depressie, angst, enz.) als slachtoffers van martelingen. In het laboratorium opgesloten chimpansees (vaak vastgehouden in gekooide, geïsoleerde, onvoorspelbare omgevingen waar ze geen controle over hebben) hebben zichzelf verminkt vanwege de ernstige fysieke en mentale nood die ze moeten doorstaan. Per Undercover Investigation onthult wreedheid voor Chimps in Research Lab (The Humane Society of the United States, 4 maart 2009), “schreeuwen babyapen terwijl ze met geweld van hun moeder worden verwijderd … chimpansees vertonen intense angst … wanneer ze gedwongen worden om naar [a needle] in hun knijpkooien [and one chimpanzee, Siafu even] probeerde personeel te pleiten [using] ruwe smekende gebaren. ‘

Toen de Britse regering in 1986 het gebruik van chimpansees voor onderzoek verbood, vertelde Steve Connor, wetenschappelijk redacteur van The Independent in Onderzoekscentrum voor chimpansees sluiten, zeggen wetenschappers (27 maart 2001), werd het aangehaald als “een kwestie van moraliteit. Het cognitieve en gedragsmatige [sic] kenmerken en eigenschappen van deze dieren maken het onethisch om ze te beschouwen als vervangbaar voor onderzoek. “Het is niet verrassend dat de Europese Unie op weg is om het gebruik van chimpansees in laboratoria te verbieden.

Per Connor, “de ontwikkeling van nieuwe technieken in genetische manipulatie, die het mogelijk heeft gemaakt om veel ‘modellen’ van ziekten bij de mens te creëren met [genetically-manipulated] ratten en muizen, heeft het gebruik van chimpansees in medisch onderzoek ondermijnd “, evenals de hoge kosten in termen van dollars, pijn en lijden en ethiek.

XIII. Juridische precedenten voor soorten-praktische mensenrechten:

Nu oproepen tot het verbieden van chimpansee-onderzoek verbreden, scheppen regeringen en rechtbanken ook juridische precedenten om hun speciale status te erkennen, voornamelijk vanwege hun zelfbewustzijn en hun vermogen om over zichzelf na te denken in de fysieke en mentale rijken, die een complex niveau van abstract denken aantonen met name bij mensen.

In 1986 was Groot-Brittannië het eerste land dat experimenten met chimpansees en andere mensapen verbood. Het parlement van Nieuw-Zeeland volgde in 1999 en Nederland en Australië deden hetzelfde in respectievelijk 2002 en 2003.

In September 2005, a Bahia, Brazil court presided by Judge Edmundo Lúcio da Cruz granted Habeas Corpus protection to a 23 year-old chimpanzee, Suiça so that she could be transferred from confinement in a zoo’s cage with little intellectual stimulation to a sanctuary where she could enjoy a social life (with 35 other chimpanzees), the possibility of raising a family, and open spaces. In doing so, Suiça, who never made it to the sanctuary, having died unexpectedly, became the first animal recognized as a legal subject.

In June 2008, Spain’s parliament passed a precedent-setting resolution granting human rights to chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans stating that these non-human hominids should enjoy the right to life, freedom and that their bodily integrity be protected against torture.

In December 2009 as reported by University World News (20 December 2009), “a ban on using great apes such as chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orang-utans for scientific testing [was] broadly accepted” by the European Parliament and EU Council of Ministers subject to minor changes in text for final approval.

XIV. Conclusion:

Based on the remarkable cognitive abilities of chimpanzees, the fact that they exceptionally close to human and drawing nearer as scientific evidence mounts, it is critical that they and other sentient creatures (e.g. great apes, dolphins) be afforded protections to recognize their special status – namely that captivity is only used to conserve the species. When such captivity is necessary, it is imperative that they be given the respect and intellectual stimulation they deserve, their individuality is honored, and most importantly, laws be enacted to prohibit their use as unconsenting guinea pigs subjected to unnecessary torture, pain, and suffering.

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[1] T. Matsuno and M. Tomonaga. An advantage for concavities in shape perception by chimpanzees. (Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. 3 March 2007).

[2] Chimpanzees as Artists. Artists Ezine. 29 December 2009. http://www.artistsezine.com/WhyChimp.htm

Additional Reference:

Chimpanzees. Global Action Network. (Montreal, Canada. 2005). 26 December 2009. http://www.gan.ca/animals/chimpanzees.en.html



Source by William Sutherland