The article “Modification of Cognitive Behavior and Organizational Culture” illustrates how organizational culture becomes the focus and obstacle to improving organizational performance (Boan, 2006). A research design aims to examine the development of organizational culture in promoting health care, thereby formulating interventions to strengthen the organizational team. The intervention is a training program based on the cognitive psychology model of organizational culture.
Cognitive behavior modification or CBM integrates the techniques of behaviorism, social learning theory and cognitive psychology. CBM focuses on discourse and narrative. In CBM, change begins with observing behavior through awareness and attention. This change begins with a narrative story, in which the theme explains their experience. Participants ’perceptions can be reconstructed to reshape their behavior. The reconstructed narrative is composed of new behaviors, skills related to these behaviors, and obstacles or supports in the environment that resist or assist behaviors. The reality of individuals and organizations is constructed by individuals. Apart from perception and behavior, organizational culture and personal reality do not exist. The consultant becomes a co-builder. Consultants must understand the subject culture and existing narratives about how the organization operates. The narrative is a shared mental model that develops from the experience of the members of the organization and conveys the value of the organization. The consultant can help the client reorganize the event. An event is not a failure, but an event that is understandable in the environment. All organizational cultures will bias the ideas created by individuals. The consultant conducts a functional evaluation. Change behavior must be supported by structure. The structure that hinders an effective narrative structure needs to be changed. Consultants help clients develop the necessary skills. Consultants use modeling, guidance, training and education to assist clients. Effective behavior is interpersonal behavior, communication and decision-making. Consultants use key relationships. Leadership can make a difference, and it can control the company’s understanding of how it works in a particular organization. Consultants reduce complexity. In a micro team that can control the environment, change becomes easier. Organizations can include the influence of subcultural competition on the organization. In summary, this paper proposes a model that integrates internal cognitive processes with environmental functions for beneficial organizational intervention. The individual is the architect of his or her environment. The person triggered and responded to the environment. Culture is essential to achieve organizational change and improve healthcare. Identify change agents and intervene with selected teams. These interventions start with training agents to conduct evaluations, and then dialogue to clarify perceptions and interactive changes. To a larger extent, interventions that will be tested by systematic application to external companies will be prepared. The test will verify the model and clarify the relationship between the intervention components, and clarify the description of the intervention method. Proficient in organizational psychology and advising Fortune 40 companies, I found this model to be very applicable and promising for companies of any size.
The article “Connecting and Separating Thinking Sets: Culture as Cognition” describes how people perceive meaningful wholes and then separate the parts (Oyserman et al., 2009). There are cross-country differences in the way you see the target for the first time. The proposed cultural in situ cognitive model explains that these differences are due to collective or individual ways of thinking. Eight studies have shown that when cultural concepts and task requirements are consistent, tasks that are easier to complete will be completed faster, while tasks that are more difficult will be completed more accurately. It has a homogenous effect across geographic locations, races, tasks and sensory patterns. This article examines the differences in initial focus. The hypothesis of this study says that society differs in the possibility of prompting the brain to focus on the relationship of individual points or connections first. The levels of individualism and collectivism in society are different, and these differences will have consequences based on differences in values, self-concepts, emotional expressions, relationships, and cognitive processes. Long-distance differences in philosophy, religion, language, and history may lead to differences in cognitive processes and ways of self-definition. The cultural in-situ cognitive model says that cognition is in reality. The model predicts that cultural thinking will affect content and processes. This article assumes that cross-cultural and sensory patterns, and following the trade-off between speed and accuracy, good cultural mindset helps to perform in cognitive tasks that are best performed using cognitive programs with consistent thinking norms. This article demonstrates the influence of the pronoun circle task on cultural thinking. This study also proved the parallel impact of different societies. Similarly, it demonstrates the effect of using different sensor modes and repetitive tasks throughout the task. In addition, it demonstrates the trade-off between system speed and accuracy. Finally, it shows the impact of the entire American race on academic tasks (such as standardized exams). This study uses the start-up technique of the pronoun orbiting task because the content does not include terms that are assumed to be implied processes. The influence of pronouns on the process emphasizes the concept that cultural concepts are instilled in the process. The use of pronoun tasks conforms to the principle of situational cognition, that is, cognition is context-sensitive. The one-tailed probability test is used to test the importance of triggering cultural thinking. Use the two-tailed test of gender to test the temperance of gender and race.
The results support the cultural in situ cognitive model. The model implies that language use, self-concepts, goals and motivations may imply mind-set, because any important psychological aspects of action-related situations should be important. These effects are mediated through changes in self-construction. This study shows that a more prudent model is to predict that individual and collective mentality may be directly implied, not necessarily through self-concept. The characteristics of the situation may directly suggest a mindset, connecting or separating cognitive goals. Prompted procedures and goals may suggest an obvious self-explanation.
Cross-country comparisons cannot isolate the role of specific elements of culture. Studies of chronic differences in cognitive processes show that compared to Americans, Chinese people are more holistic and have a broader perspective, while Japanese people are relativistic, and Americans have higher analytical skills and absolute judgment. The findings in this article indicate that the impact is due to differences in content, cognitive processes, or current prompting goals. Participants in various societies obtained procedural tracks related to individualism and collectivism. These active components of culture influence the use of cognitive content and important cognitive programs. This study shows that individual and collective mindset effects occur across geographic boundaries. These results indicate that cultural thinking plays a similar role in the whole society and heterogeneous society.
In a heterogeneous society, there may be a mismatch between the cultural way of thinking suggested in the context and the way of thinking that is most suitable for the current task. Due to small changes in the background, collective mindset may be important for some candidates, but not for others. Other tips may also be important. In the case of the United States, the test-taking situation may highlight the ethnic or social class identity of the minority, suggesting social goals and triggering collective mindsets. When the split and split mindset is suitable for the task at hand, it is suggested that the collective mindset will reduce performance.
Cultural concepts can be changed. The mentality can be extended in the practical sense. A small amount of intervention may produce major changes. My explanation for these studies is that quantum physics and spiritual practice have also proven and taught similar or identical principles. I agree with them and I will try to practice them every day to improve my lifestyle
The article “Spatial Effects of Multiple Exposures on Memory: Effects on Advertising Schedules” shows that the spatial effect is the fact that a longer interval between two exposures leads to a better learning effect (Sawyer Etc., 2009). This article provides an empirical summary or EG about the size of the spacing effect and the conditions that produce the difference. The EG in this article is based on the results of a meta-analysis of cognitive psychology and marketing laboratory experiments.
Repeated exposure is effective for learning. The spacing effect is an undisputed phenomenon. The study found that the spacing effect is applicable to many different types of stimuli. In the interval between many other stimuli, the memory of meaningless syllables, words, sentences, pictures and faces can be enhanced. Through repeated instruction and learning of scientific and mathematical concepts in the classroom, the effects of vocabulary and text processing have been proven.
This article is a meta-analysis of 248 controlled repeated exposure experiments on spacing effects, which contains sufficient statistical information to calculate the effect size. The maximum time from the last exposure to memory measurement is 21 days. Most studies test the timetable for two contacts. The age of the interviewees is between 4 and 69 years old. Different variables include type of learning, form, meaning, familiarity, complexity, type of stimulus, correlation of memory cues, accidental or intentional processing, stimulus performance medium, complexity and similarity of intervention materials, and memory performance. The results show that the spacing effect is statistically significant.
Regarding different types of exposure stimuli, there are differences in the size of the spacing effect. All empirical evidence suggests that scheduling more repeated exposures over a certain time span will produce better memory than the same number of exposures that are clustered together. Advertisers should try to expose at intervals over a period of time, as long as that period of time does not exceed the time required to retain some trace of memory previously exposed.
Another argument is that the retrieval theory is consistent with the meta-analysis result model. The theory assumes that an effective media plan encourages careful handling of advertisements during the initial exposure to enhance subsequent retrieval of these exposures. Relative to the flight of two shorter and longer commercials, the usual schedule is to initially place 30 commercials at the beginning of the advertising campaign, and then compress 15 of these commercials, which can better store the advertising content.
Another EG is an effective repetition strategy that may obtain accidental processing during certain exposures of advertising material, while deliberate processing may be obtained during other exposures. An effective repetition strategy may be to alternate exposures in media with different levels of participation. The media involved include print or Internet sites sought by consumers, while the less involved media include broadcasts and product placements.
Another EG is that in addition to using different media, it is also recommended to conduct distributed exposure of different types of messages to encourage different levels of related processing. If the messages included in the plan differ in complexity, length, hard and soft sales, and closed and open sales, the schedule may be more effective. Ads with complex semantics benefit from multiple exposures at intervals than simple ads.
In this study, the interval effect of oral stimuli was stronger than stimuli presented only visually or simultaneously in both ways. Broadcasting is a kind of media with low participation. Moreover, novel stimuli benefit more than interval stimuli than familiar stimuli. The research shows that new brands are more effective at increasing advertising weight than familiar brands. The study revealed better results. Similarly, the meaning of repeated stimulation will affect the size of the spacing effect. Less meaningful stimuli benefit more from more meaningful stimuli. Finally, the reminder process of repeated exposure can benefit from the interval plan more than the interval process. Prompt processing is like the processing involved. Highly engaged purchases may benefit more from the interval plan. More semantically complex content benefits from spacing than difficult-to-read content. It is appropriate to separate more complex content (such as printed advertisements with relatively long copies). For simpler advertising, the larger-scale campaign will have no disadvantages.
The spacing effect is the effect on repeated symbols and pictures, words, sentences and other educational materials. The variables that play a role in the laboratory can provide the best predictions about advertising. Advertisers should try to expose at intervals over a period of time, as long as that period of time does not exceed the time required to retain some trace of memory previously exposed. Multiple exposures at intervals produce better learning effects than repeated exposures over short periods of time. Compared with a shorter time interval, a longer exposure time interval can improve the learning effect. All in all, my interpretation of this article is positive. The next time I spend money, time and energy on advertising, I will implement these principles. I think these principles apply to internet marketing.
The article “Understanding how cognitive psychology informs and improves Spanish vocabulary acquisition in high school classrooms” shows how educators deal with the dynamic function of the human brain every day (Erbes et al., 2010). This empirical study investigates how information about human memory in the field of cognitive psychology is used specifically to teach Spanish vocabulary in high school classrooms. Research on human memory can improve the teaching vocabulary of Spanish classes in high schools.
The field of cognitive psychology lays the foundation for teacher preparation, because all prospective teachers have begun the road of teacher qualification certification through cognitive development courses. In school, teachers regularly interact with students in the classroom, where students are using the brain to receive, process, store, and retrieve information. The brain can receive and store information in many different ways. Through a variety of rich sensory input mechanisms, the brain can receive some information and carefully store it in its short-term, work or long-term memory. People can link their learning abilities with teaching goals to bridge the gap between education and cognitive psychology. The brain can use its different storage systems to retain and retrieve knowledge.
Foreign language classes provide declarative knowledge and memory information. The brain has many types of memory functions that can be used to help students retain and retrieve information learned in the classroom. Foreign language teaching is an example of a teaching method that does not take advantage of the long-term memory ability of the brain. Performing rehearsals in the school ’s foreign language classrooms is a routine technique that involves continuous repetition. Rehearsal exercises link new information to familiar materials. Through the exercise, the learner extracts the meaning of the new information and then links it to the material already in memory. The more connections, the greater the likelihood of remembering new information in the future. Using this method, people tend to remember meaningful material better than arbitrary facts.
Common strategies for teaching foreign language vocabulary include keyword methods, the use of things in real life, linking interpersonal relationships to the semantic structure of words, rote rehearsal, using picture-word pairs, and rehearsal using flashcard images vocabulary. In this study, the number of students reflects the upper-middle class community. Choose two classes according to the teacher’s permission and course arrangement. Each class has an average of 25 students. All student participants are required to complete a pre-survey, take a scripting course, and take all six post-tests. Students are learning Spanish for the first time. The data analyzed in this study included a total of 78 students. The purpose of each lesson is for students to learn 15 Spanish food vocabulary. In research, traditional courses mainly involve rote memorization. In this case, the teacher will ask the student to repeat each Spanish word twice and repeat the English translation after the teacher. Then, the teacher conducts an activity. After the teacher models the pronunciation of the word, the student repeats each Spanish word verbally again, and then the student writes a visual image of the word on the worksheet.
Non-traditional courses involve deeper treatment of the use of real food and exercises to encourage students to consider whether they like these foods. Then the teacher raised the real food of each vocabulary and asked the students to repeat. On the worksheet, students tick the boxes to indicate a pleasant or unpleasant connection with specific vocabulary words. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PMCC) determines high inter-evaluator reliability. Microsoft Excel and SPSS are used for statistical analysis and check the effectiveness of the two teaching methods based on the test.
The results showed significant multivariate effects and significant intra-subject effects. The test of the intersubject effect showed a significant school effect. After non-traditional courses, these vocabulary words have the highest memory, and then they will lose their memory 3 and 24 days after the start of the course. When testing immediately after class, the exposure of traditional and non-traditional courses will produce the highest score. Subsequent tests showed that the score gradually decreased. These results show that after using non-traditional teaching methods, even after 3 days and 24 days, the memory of the vocabulary word is higher.
All in all, I found this research very interesting. I am not surprised by the result. My first language is Italian, and sometimes I teach private students. In my teaching, I implemented the principles of neurolinguistic programming involving all sensations. For example, I take students for a walk, let them touch certain things in the environment, and create specific experiential associations for them with words and their sounds, surfaces or tactile or kinesthetic, smell, color and shape. I noticed that when I introduced these hands-on experiences, my students might retain better wording than we sat at the desk next to the office desk. I have been taught in English since I was 7 years old, but I was taught by an Italian teacher with an accent and studying English literature like Shakespeare. When I came to the United States, I was and still speak English in Italian accents, and I was not surprised. I was not surprised, because the old Shakespeare language was not useful at the time, so my English at that time was not conversational. I hope to see more scientific research on the differences in learning foreign languages at different ages to show when the brain is more inclined to learn foreign languages. I assume that it was at a young age.
Boan, D. (2006). Cognitive behavior modification and organizational culture. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 58 (1), 51-61.
Erbes, S., Folkerts, M., Gergis, C., Pederson, S., & Stivers, H. (2010). Learn how cognitive psychology guides and improves Spanish vocabulary acquisition in high school classrooms. Journal of Teaching Psychology, 37 (2), 120-132.
Matlin, M. (2008) New York Cognition: John Wiley & Sons.
Oyserman, D., Sorensen, N., Reber, R., & Xiaohua Chen, S. (2009). Connect and separate thinking sets: culture as a situational cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97 (2), 217-235.
Sawyer, A., Noel, H. And Janiszewski, C. (2009). The spatial effect of multiple exposures on memory: the impact on advertising schedules. Journal of Advertising Research, 49 (2), 193-197.