Information systems and technologies have become an important component of successful companies and organizations.
Information system means an interconnected set of information resources under the same direct management control that share common functionality. A system usually includes hardware, software, information, data, applications, communication and people, while an information system is the arrangement of people, data, processes, data presentation and information technology that support our daily needs. It is, in fact, a technologically implemented medium for recording, storing and disseminating linguistic expressions as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions. Computer technology is used to implement information systems.
TYPES OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM
Information system can be divided into two basic forms
1. OPERATION SUPPORT
It is further divided into
o Transaction Processing System (TPS)
o Enterprise Collaboration System
o Process management system
2. MANAGEMENT REPORT
It is further divided into the following
o Management Information System (MIS)
o Decision Support System (DSS)
o Executive Support System (ESS)
TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING AN INFORMATION SYSTEM
The steps involved in developing an information system are:
Analysis, feasibility study, system design, testing, implementation, documentation.
TRENDS IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEM:
It is generally accepted that information is an important commodity for the successful operation of today’s organizations. Today, modern business organizations use computerized information systems to obtain desired information. As technology advances rapidly, the main problem is how can an organization effectively use such an information system that its management can sometimes be unpredictable to effectively help the entire organizational structure improve and make the most of it.
It seems pretty obvious that information systems have played an important interconnection role, even before the advent of the Internet. For example. The opportunities offered by information systems have greatly influenced the way managers were able to exercise control and therefore constituted an important factor in the organization of large-scale business and their geographical expansion. The same goes for governments and their statistical apparatus. The recent integration of computer networks and electronic data exchange facilitates the creation of common databases and policies among governments and accelerated developments that had started earlier. It also created new opportunities for business, for example, to enable companies to develop new organizational practices (e.g., just-in-time).
However, the role of information systems in the organization shifts to support business processes rather than individual functions. The focus is outward to clients rather than inward to procedures. Companies are changing more and more rapidly.
This presents a challenge to existing information systems that are often incorrectly structured to meet these needs. It also poses a challenge for the people who design, work and use these systems as they may have outdated assumptions.
To secure the services provided by information systems when needed and their failure will not cause catastrophic disasters, their reliability and efficiency become extremely important. Imagine what would happen when a banking system works properly due to some critical system failures or when a health information system gives wrong advice to patients.
It is not even too much that our lives are already under the control of computer systems, but their reliability and efficiency have become extremely important
USES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM:
There are a wide range of information system applications being implemented in today’s world. To name a few such as
1. Sales analysis, production performance and cost trend
2. Product prices, profitability forecasts and risk
3. Sales and inventory processing and accounting system
4. Geographic information systems
5. Health information systems
6. Bank information system
7. Petroleum refining system
8. Power generation system
9. Steel production system