There are four main functions in management.
Planning is an important management function. It provides the design of a desired future state and the means to create the future state to achieve the organization’s goals. In other words, planning is the process of thinking before doing so. To address the issues and take advantage of the opportunities created by rapid change, leaders need to develop formal long and short-range plans so that organizations can move toward their goals.
It is the foundation of leadership. It is the base on which all management areas must be built. Planning requires administration to assess; where the business is currently located and where it will be in the future. From there, an appropriate course of action is determined and implemented to achieve the company’s goals and objectives
Planning is the endless course of action. There may be sudden strategies that companies must face. Sometimes they are uncontrollable. You can say that it is external factors that constantly affect a business both optimistic and pessimistic. Depending on the conditions, a company may change its course of action to achieve certain goals. This kind of preparation, arrangement is known as strategic planning. In strategic planning, management analysis within and outside factors that can have an impact on the company and so goals and objectives. Here they were to explore strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats. For management to do this effectively, it must be very practical and plentiful.
Characteristics of planning.
Ø Target oriented.
Island involves choices.
Ø Mental exercise.
Ø Planning of premises.
The importance of planning.
* Make the goals clear and specific.
* Makes activities meaningful.
* Reduce the risk of uncertainty.
* Facilitator coordination.
* Facilitator decision making.
* Promotes creativity.
* Provides basis for control.
* Leads to economy and efficiency.
* Improves adoptive behavior.
* Letter integration.
Formal and informal planning.
The formal planning usually forces managers to consider all the important factors and focus on both short- and long-distance consequences. Formal planning is a systematic planning process where plans are coordinated throughout the organization and usually recorded in writing. There are some benefits to informal planning. First, formalized planning forces managers to plan because they are required to do so by their superiors or by organizational rules. Second, managers are forced to research every area of the organization. Third, the formalization itself provides a set of common assumptions upon which all leaders can base their plans.
Planning that is unsystematic lacks coordination and involves only parts of organizations called informal planning. It has three dangerous flaws. First, it may not take into account all the important factors. Second, the frequency only focuses on short range. Third, plans in different parts of the organization may conflict without coordination.
Stages in planning.
The sequential nature of the planning means that each step must be completed before the next phase begins. A systematic planning process is a series of sequential activities that lead to the implementation of organizational plans.
- The first step in planning is to develop organizational goals.
- Second, planning specialists and top management develop a strategic plan and disseminate it to middle managers.
- Third, use the strategic plans to coordinate the development of middle management middle plans.
- Fourth, department managers and supervisors develop operational plans that are consistent with the middle plans.
- Fifth, implementation involves making decisions and taking action to implement the plans.
- Sixth, the last phase, follow-up and control, which is critical.
The organizational planning system.
A coordinated organizational planning system requires strategic, intermediate and operational plans to be developed in order of their importance to the organization. All three plans are interdependent on intermediate plans based on strategic plans and operational plans based on intermediate plans. Strategic plans are the first to be developed because they set the future direction of the organization and are crucial to the survival of the organization. Strategic plans thus lay the foundation for the development of intermediate plans and operational plans. The next plans to be developed are the middle plans; Intermediate plans cover important functional areas within an organization and are the stepping stone to operational plans. Last comes operating plans; these provide specific guidelines for the activities within each department.
The other function of leadership is to be prepared, to be organized. Management must organize all of its resources well in advance to be able to complete the course of action to decide on what is planned in the base function. Through this process, management will now determine the internal director configuration; establish and maintain relationships and also allocate needed resources.
When determining the internal director configuration, management must look at the various departments or departments. They also provide for staff harmonization and try to figure out the best way to handle the important tasks and expenses of information in the business. Management determines the division of labor according to its needs. It must also decide that appropriate departments should delegate authority and responsibility.
The importance of the organizational process and organizational structure.
- Promote specialization.
- You define jobs.
- Classifies authority and power.
- Facilitator coordination.
- Behave as a source of security satisfaction.
- Facilitator customization.
- Facilitators’ growth.
- Stimulators creativity.
Directing is the third function of management. Working under this function helps management control and monitor staff actions. This helps them to help the staff achieve the business goals and also meet their personal or career goals, which can be driven by motivation, communication, departmental dynamics and departmental leadership.
Highly provoked employees generally outperform their job performance and also play an important role in achieving the company’s goals. And here lies the reason why managers focus on motivating their employees. They provide premium and incentive programs based on job performance and are tailored to employees’ requirements.
It is very important to maintain a productive work environment, build positive interpersonal relationships and problem solving. And this can only happen with effective communication. Understanding the communication process and working in an area that needs to be improved and help leaders become more effective communicators. The finest technique for finding the areas that need improvement is to ask yourself and others periodically how well they are doing. This leads to a better relationship and helps the leaders to better instructional plans.
Management control is the follow-up process of examining performance, comparing actual with planned actions and taking corrective action as needed. It is continuous; it does not occur only at the end of specified periods. Although small shop owners or managers may be assessing performance at the end of the year, they are also monitoring performance throughout the year.
Types of management control:
* Preventive control.
Preventive controls are designed to prevent unwanted performance before it takes place.
* Correction check.
Correction control is designed to adjust situations where actual performance has already deviated from the planned performance.
Stages in the management control process.
The management control process is composed of several stages. These phases include
- Defining performance standards.
- Measurement of current performance.
- Comparison of actual performance with desired performance (performance standards) to determine discrepancies.
- Evaluation of the discrepancies.
- Implementing corrective actions.
2) Describe how this each function leads to achieving the organizational goals.
Whether the system is an organization, department, business, project, etc., the planning process includes planners working backwards through the system. They start from the results (results and outputs) they prefer and work backwards through the system to identify the processes needed to produce the results. They then identify what inputs (or resources) are needed to implement the processes.
* Quickly look at some basic conditions:
Planning typically includes the use of the following basic terms.
NOTE: It is not critical to understand fully accurate definitions of each of the following terms. It is more important for planners to have a basic sense of the difference between goals / objectives (results) and strategies / tasks (methods to achieve the results).
Goals are specific results that must be achieved in all or in some combination to achieve a larger overall result preferred by the system, e.g. The mission of an organization. (When we return to our reference to systems, the goal is output from the system.)
- Strategies or activities
These are the methods or processes that, in all or in some combination, are required to achieve the goals. (Going back to our reference to systems, strategies are processes in the system.)
Goals are specific outcomes that must be achieved in total or in combination to achieve the goals of the plan. Goals are usually “milestones” along the way when strategies are implemented.
Especially in small organizations, people are assigned various tasks needed to implement the plan. If the scope of the plan is very small, tasks and activities are often essentially the same.
- Resources (and budgets)
Resources include the people, materials, technologies, money, etc. needed to implement strategies or processes. The cost of these resources is often depicted in the form of a budget. (When we return to our system reference, resources are loaded into the system.)
Basic overview of typical phases in planning
Whether the system is an organization, department, business, project, etc., the basic planning process typically includes similar nature of activities performed in similar order. The phases are performed carefully or – in some cases – intuitively, for example when planning a very small, straightforward effort. The complexity of the different phases (and their duplication throughout the system) depends on the scope of the system. For example, in a large corporation, the following stages are performed at the corporate offices, in each department, in each department, in each group, etc.
1. Reference Overall Singular Purpose (“Mission”) or desired result from the system.
During planning, planners (consciously or unconsciously) have an overall purpose or result that the plan must achieve. During strategic planning, it is e.g. Critically referring to the mission of the organization or the overall purpose.
2. Take the storage outside and inside the system.
This “recording” is always done to some degree, whether consciously or unconsciously. For example, during strategic planning, it is important to conduct an environmental scan. This scan usually involves consideration of various driving forces or major influences that may have an impact on the organization.
3. Analyze the situation.
During strategic planning, planners often perform a “SWOT analysis”. (SWOT is an acronym to consider an organization’s strengths and weaknesses and the opportunities and threats faced by the organization.) During this analysis, planners can also use a variety of assessments or methods to “measure” the health of the systems.
4. Set goals.
Based on the analysis and alignment to the overall mission of the system, planners establish a set of goals that build on strengths to take advantage of opportunities while building weaknesses and mitigating threats.
5. Create strategies to reach goals.
The strategies (or methods used to achieve the goals) depend on issues of affordability, practicality and efficiency.
6. Set goals along the way to reach goals.
Goals are chosen to be timely and indicate progress towards goals.
7. Align responsibilities and timelines to each goal.
Responsibilities are assigned, including for the implementation of the plan, and for achieving different goals and objectives. Ideally, deadlines are set to comply with each responsibility.
8. Write and disseminate a plan document.
The above information is organized and written in a document distributed around the system.
9. Recognize implementation and celebrate success.
This critical step is often ignored – which can ultimately undermine the success of many of your future planning efforts. The purpose of a plan is to tackle a current problem or pursue a development goal. It seems simplistic to claim that you need to acknowledge if the problem was solved or the goal was met. However, this step in the planning process is often ignored instead of moving on to the next problem to solve or the goal to pursue. Skipping this step can cultivate apathy and skepticism – including cynicism – in your organization. Do not skip this step.
To ensure successful planning and implementation:
A common failure of many types of planning is that the plan is never really implemented. Instead, all the focus is on writing a plan document. The plan sits far too often, collecting dust on a shelf. Therefore, most of the following guidelines help ensure that the planning process is fully implemented and fully implemented – or that deviations from the proposed plan are recognized and managed accordingly.
- Involve the right people in the planning process
Going back to the reference to systems, it is critical that all parts of the system continue to exchange feedback to operate effectively. This is true no matter what type of system. When planning, you should get input from everyone responsible for implementing parts of the plan along with the representative of groups that will be implemented by the plan. Of course, people also need to be involved in being responsible for reviewing and approving the plan.
- Write the planning information and disseminate it widely
Especially new leaders often forget that others do not know what these leaders know. Even if leaders communicate their intentions and plans orally, chances are that others will not fully hear or understand what the leader wants done. As the plans change, it is extremely difficult to remember who should do what and according to which version of the plan. Key stakeholders (employees, management, board members, founders, investor, clients, clients, etc.) can request copies of different types of plans. Therefore, it is important to write down plans and communicate them widely.
- Goals and goals must be SMARTER
SMARTER is an acronym, that is, a word composed by joining letters from different words into a sentence or set of words. In this case, a SMARTER target or target is:
For example, it is difficult to know what someone should do if they are to pursue the goal of “working harder”. “Write a paper” is easier to recognize.
It is difficult to know what the scope of “Writing Paper” really is. This effort is easier to appreciate if the goal is “Write a 30-page paper.”
If I am to take responsibility for the pursuit of a goal, then the goal should be acceptable to me. For example, I am not likely to follow the instructions of someone who tells me to write a 30-page paper when I also need five other papers to write. But if you involve me in setting the goal so that I can change my other commitments or change the goal, I am much more likely to accept pursuing the goal as well.
Even if I take on the responsibility of pursuing a goal that is specific and measurable, the goal will not be useful to me or others if, for example, the goal is to “write a 30-page paper for the next 10 seconds”.
It can mean more to others if I commit to a realistic goal of “writing a 30-page paper in a week”. However, it will mean more to others (especially if they are planning to help me or guide me to the goal) if I specify that I will write one page a day for 30 days, rather than include the opportunity to write all 30 pages on the last day of the 30-day period.
The goal is to stretch the artist’s abilities. For example, I might be more interested in writing a 30-page paper if the subject of the paper or the way I write it expands my options.
I am more likely to write the paper if the paper will contribute to an effort in such a way that I might be rewarded for my efforts.
- Built accountability (Review regularly, who is doing what and when?)
The plans must specify who is responsible for achieving each outcome, including goals and objectives. Dates must also be set for the completion of each result. Responsible parties should regularly review the status of the plan. Make sure to have someone with authority “sign” on the plan, including putting their signature on the plan to indicate that they agree with and support its content. Include responsibilities in policies, procedures, job descriptions, performance review processes, etc.
- Note Deviations from the plan and plan accordingly
It is OK to deviate from the plan. The plan is not a set of rules. That is a general guideline. As important as following the plan is to notice deviations and adjust the plan accordingly.
- Evaluate the planning process and plan
During the planning process, you must regularly collect feedback from participants. Do they agree with the planning process? If not, what do they dislike and how could it be done better? In large, ongoing planning processes (such as strategic planning, business planning, project planning, etc.), it is critical to collect this kind of feedback regularly.
When regularly reviewing the implementation of the plan, you must assess whether the goals are being achieved or not. If not, were the goals realistic? Do responsible parties have the resources needed to achieve the goals and objectives? Should goals be changed? Should more goals be prioritized? What should be done?
Finally, it takes 10 minutes to write down how the planning process could have been better. File it away and read it the next time you complete the planning process.
- The repetitive planning process is at least as important as the planning document
Too often, the emphasis is primarily on the plan document. This is extremely unfortunate because the real treasure of planning is the planning process itself. During planning, planners learn a lot from ongoing analysis, reflection, discussion, debate and dialogue about issues and goals in the system. There may be no better example of misplaced priorities in planning than in business ethics. Too often, people emphasize written codes of ethics and codes of conduct. Although these documents are certainly important, ongoing communication about these documents is at least as important. The ongoing communication is what allows sensitive people to understand and follow the values and behaviors suggested in the codes.
- The nature of the process must be compatible with the nature of the planners
A prominent example of this type of potential problem is when planners do not prefer “top down” or “bottom up”, “linear” planning type (for example, going from general to specific during the process of an environmental scan, SWOT) analysis, mission / vision / values, issues and goals, strategies, goals, schedules, etc.) There are other ways to execute planning. For an overview of various methods, see (below, the models are used for the strategic planning process, but are generally eligible for use elsewhere).
Critical – but often missing steps – recognition and celebration of results
It is easy for planners to get tired and even cynical about the planning process. One of the reasons for this problem is that all too often the emphasis is on achieving the results. When the desired results are achieved, new ones are quickly established. The process may seem to solve one problem after another with no real end in sight. But when you really think about it, it is a great achievement to carefully analyze a situation, involve others in a plan to do something about it, work together to implement the plan and actually see some results.
Organizing can be seen as the activities of collecting and configuring resources to implement plans in a very effective and efficient way. Organizing is a broad set of activities and is often considered one of the most important functions of management. Therefore, there are a wide range of topics in organization. The following are some of the most important types of organization required in a business organization.
A central issue in the design of organizations is the coordination of activities within the organization.
It is critical to coordinate the activities of a large number of people performing specialized jobs if we want to avoid mass confusion. Likewise, various departments such as grouping specialized tasks must be coordinated. If the sales department sells on credit to anyone who wanted it, sales are likely to increase, but the loss on deficit can also increase. If the credit department only approves sales to customers with excellent credit records, sales may be lower. Thus, there is a need to link or coordinate the activities of both departments (credits and sales) for the benefit of the overall organization.
Coordination is the process of thinking several activities to achieve a functioning whole.
Leading is an activity that consists of influencing the behavior of others, individually and as a group, towards achieving the desired goals. A number of factors affect leadership. To provide a better understanding of the relationship between these factors to leadership, a general management model is presented.
The degree of leadership influence on individuals and group effectiveness is influenced by several energizing forces:
- Individual factors.
- Organizational factors.
- The interaction (match or conflict) between individual and organizational factors.
The influence of a leader on subordinates also affects and is influenced by the effectiveness of the group.
* Group efficiency.
The purpose of leadership is to strengthen the group’s performance. The activating forces can directly affect the efficiency of the group. The leadership skills, the nature of the task and the abilities of the individual employee are all direct inputs for group performance. For example, if a member of the group is unskilled, the group will earn less. If the task is poorly designed, the group will achieve less.
These forces are also combined and modified by the influence of the leader. The leader’s influence on the subordinate acts as a catalyst for the group’s task. And as the group becomes more effective, the leader’s influence on subordinates becomes greater.
There are times when the effectiveness of a group depends on the leader’s ability to exercise power over subordinates. The behavior of a leader can be motivating because it affects the way a child looks at task goals and personal goals. The leader’s behavior also clarifies the paths the subordinates can achieve these goals. Accordingly, several management strategies can be used.
First, the manager can partially determine what rewards (salary, promotion, recognition) to be associated with a given task accomplishment. Then, the manager uses the rewards that have the highest value for the employee. Giving sales reps bonus and commission is an example of attaching rewards to tasks. These bonuses and commissions are generally related to sales goals.
Second, the manager’s interaction with the subordinate may increase the subordinate’s expectations of receiving the reward for achievement.
Third, the manager can increase the employee’s expectation that the effort will lead to good performance, by matching the employee’s skills with the task requirements and providing the necessary support. The supervisor can either select qualified employees or provide training for new employees. In some cases, providing other types of support, such as appropriate tools, can increase the likelihood of employee engagement leading to the task.
Fourth, the manager can increase the subordinate personal satisfaction associated with doing a job and achieving job goals by
- Assigning meaningful tasks;
- Delegation of supplementary authority
- Setting meaningful goals;
- Letting subordinates help set goals;
- Reducing frustrating barriers;
- To consider subordinate needs.
With a leader who can motivate subordinates, a group is more likely to achieve goals; and therefore it is more likely to be affective.
Control, the last of four management functions, includes establishing performance standards that are naturally based on the company’s goals. It also involves evaluating and reporting actual job performance. When these points are studied by management, it is necessary to compare both things. This study of comparing both you decide on additional corrective and preventative actions.
In an effort to address performance issues, management should set higher standards. They should also talk to the employee or department that is having problems. On the contrary, if there are insufficient resources or prevent other external factors from being reached, management would have to lower their standards per year. Requirements. The control processes are in comparison with other three infinite process or say continuous process. With this management you can create possible problems. It helps them to take necessary preventative action against the consequences. The management can also recognize any further issues that need corrective action.
Although the control process is action-oriented, some situations may not require corrective action. When the performance standard is appropriate and actual performance meets this standard, no change is required. But when control actions are needed, they must be carefully worded.
An effective control system is one that fulfills the purposes for which it is designed.
Controls are designed to influence individual actions within an organization. Therefore, control systems have consequences for employee behavior. Leaders need to recognize multiple behavioral implications and avoid behaviors that are detrimental to the organization.
- It is common for individuals to resist certain controls. Some controls are designed to restrict and limit certain types of behavior. For example, dress codes often provoke resistance.
- Controls also have certain status and power implications in organizations. Those responsible for controls located in key performance areas often have greater power to take corrective action.
- Control actions can create intergroup or interpersonal conflict in organizations. As mentioned earlier, coordination is necessary for effective control. No quantitative performance standards must be interpreted differently by individuals, which introduces the possibility of conflict.
- An excessive number of controls can limit flexibility and creativity. The lack of flexibility and creativity can lead to low levels of employee satisfaction and personal development, thus impairing the organization’s ability to adapt to a changing environment.
Managers can overcome most of these consequences through communication and proper implementation of control actions. All performance standards must be communicated and understood.
Control systems need to be implemented in terms of their impact on people’s behavior to be consistent with organizational goals. The control process generally focuses on increasing an organization’s ability to achieve its goals.
Effective and effective leadership leads to success, success, where it reaches the goals and objectives of organizations. Of course, in order to reach the ultimate goal and goal management, it is necessary to work creatively with problem solving in all four functions. Management not only has to see the needs to achieve the goals, but also has to look at the process where their way is feasible for the business.