Remote Patient Monitoring Using Mobile and Cloud Computing

INTRODUCTION

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the next paradigm shift in which sensors are connected to the Internet, which collects data for analysis to make our planet more instrumented, interconnected and intelligent. A typical person carries an average of one or two mobile devices today. Therefore, by taking advantage of the increasing presence of mobile devices, equipment costs can be significantly reduced in many industries.

A. Motivation

The ECG iOS application presented in this document focuses on the IoT healthcare field. With the advances made in embedded information and communication technologies, we can provide intensified health support to the elderly in homes and nursing homes. This type of technology would be useful in providing ECG monitoring facility to the elderly, athletes and ordinary people. By allowing these technologies to be used at home, citizens would be able to live independently for a longer period of time, helping to reduce the cost of medical devices Healthcare currently faces the challenge of large amounts of unstructured data, different and growing exponentially. Data is constantly streamed through real-time sensors, monitors and instruments faster than the medical staff can track. The advanced techniques and high capabilities of cloud computing, processing a large amount of data can be performed more efficiently supporting big data analysis.

B. Problem statement

In the health area for IoT, patients do not have to take as many trips to the doctor anymore as they can upload the collected data from the sensors to the cloud. This can be achieved by an ECG monitoring application on the mobile device, which will collect the biosignal data using sensors and then upload to the cloud to keep an overview of the unstructured data. This reduces waiting times for triage in hospitals and minimizes visits and reduces staff and administrative costs. This convenience increases the quality of life for patients as they can enjoy other activities instead of spending time commuting to the hospital / clinic and waiting in long triage queues.

C. Suggested solution

In addition to medical knowledge, various SSE technologies are involved in IoT-based healthcare applications, including microcontroller and sensor technologies, signal processing, communication protocols, system and software design (using well-documented design patterns), DBMS, web services, data analysis and cloud techniques. Such an infrastructure must not only satisfy the basic functional requirements but also meet some important non-functional quality requirements such as performance, privacy / security, portability, scalability, flexibility and cost. Using the idea of ​​IoT and cloud techniques, this paper presents a solution to using an ADC and microcontroller card that retrieves biosignal data from a person using sensors and transmits them to the mobile device wirelessly using Bluetooth technology. When monitoring the patient’s ECG, the monitored data associated with the ECG waves displayed on the mobile app in the form of a binary file on the device’s secure digital (SD) card, and the user has the ability to upload it into a structured query language ( SQL) server private database. With the right hardware components like ADC and microcontrollers and sensors, the solution can monitor a person’s ECG in any environment at low cost without having to buy any expensive ECG monitoring devices.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

A. Mobile-based healthcare:

Mobile devices are evolving rapidly in healthcare implementation. Our system is based primarily on real-time, long-term health monitoring that meets the demand of assistant residences and health condition information providers. Thus, the distribution of mobile devices in the mobile health care system focuses on several essential functions of a medical health system.

B. Mobile Device and Web Server Communication:

Bluetooth data transmission is used in the system because Bluetooth facilities are available in numerous smart devices including portable tablet devices, laptops, personal computers and even smart TVs. conceptually; Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol operating in the 2.4 GHz band, designed for a medium data rate that averages approx. 2 Mbps.

C. Web Server Cloud Healthcare Service:

Using a web server cloud computing system for healthcare, instant access to the health tracking system is possible everywhere. Real-time ECG data is displayed on the mobile device. To ensure a seamless and continuous health tracking system, a web server cloud computing system is implemented in healthcare

A. System Architecture

End-to-end system architecture for this IoT-based project involves hardware, the mobile application and the cloud. The program has three substrates named as follows:

Service layers, platform application layers, and the file transfer and write layers show how the multiple layers in the system architecture interact. The hardware layer contains ADC, microcontrollers, and sensors that collect biosignal data, and this data is transmitted by the Bluetooth channel on the microcontroller to the application layer on an IOS device. The application layer contains three substrates within the layer itself. The service layer is the two-layer layer in the application layer that interacts with the hardware layer. The ECG service is located in the service layer, which is responsible for retrieving biosignal data from the hardware layer and storing the data in the buffer in the ECG model that performs the writing of the data.

B. Analog to digital converter

1) Features:

Easy interface for all microprocessors.

ii. Works proportionally or with 5 VDC or digital converter, 8-channel multiplexer and Analog Span-adjusted voltage reference

2) Key specification:

i. Resolution: 8 bit

ii. Single supply: 5 VDC

iii. Low power: 15 mW

iv. Conversion time: 100 µs

C. Bluetooth module

1) Features:

Fully qualified Bluetooth 2.1 / 2.0 / 1.2 / 1.1 module

ii. Low power (26uA sleep, 3mA connected, 30mA transmission)

2) Applications:

i. Measurement and monitoring systems

ii. Industrial sensors and controls

iii. Medical equipment

iv. Computer accessories

D. Cloud research and analysis

The data located in a central location rather than being distributed from different locations provides greater feasibility and data security. Therefore, as it is an ethical requirement to protect the critical medical data for individual ‘biosignals, the central architectural design pattern was chosen for the ECG IOS app. In our architectural design, the data that is monitored for all patients is stored in a central location, which will be separated through a unique identifier to identify the data for different individuals. Since all data is stored somewhere, it will be easy to query the database and perform data analysis from the combined data. The following are some advantages and disadvantages of the centralized architectural pattern:

3) Benefits:

i. The data is easily placed on the server.

ii. There is an efficient use of space for storing data in the cloud.

iii. All related data is held together.

iv. Data redundancy is avoided.

v. It is a uniform service provided to all users.

we you. Data security is improved compared to the decentralized system

5) Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Read electrical activities in the heart from the human body using sensors.

3. Send signals to ADC

4. Convert to binary file

5. Binary file is transferred to microcontroller

6. Through Bluetooth module pass the file to iOS device

7. Upload file to private cloud

8. Authorized persons monitor the patient’s data.

9. Stop