“Terminus Infinitus”: In addition to A to Z

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“Terminus * Infinitus”: In addition to A to Z

Once upon a time … someone made the interpretation of the word “Mantra!”

Of course, you and I know what that word means … don’t we? As I remember, oh yes … literally: “speech, (an) instrument of thought, of man to think; any sacred word or syllable used as the object of concentration and embodiment of an aspect of spiritual power. ” (As defined in Collins English Dictionary).

Did you remember?

A repeated conversation was rejuvenated between my friend and (former) classmate ‘William S. Brown’; class 2004/05, The Berean Institute, College of Business Administration and Computer Sciences; regarding the advantages and disadvantages of formal collegiate education … “Brother Will” has attended several other colleges and / or universities, while I have also studied through the campuses of “Community College of Philadelphia” and “Temple University” (Anderson Hall) via PASCEP and M. k. Companies.

… We agree, the cost of education is beyond phenomenal. Why should education cost so much – why a price at all?

Although we have both accepted employment opportunities that require (d) a certain level of technical expertise – must, of course, live (s) live (s) … but must really be done at the expense of students and those seeking a profitable career by their own. career choice after choice? What ever happened to the “master and apprentice” way of teaching and learning a lifelong, living earning ability? I remember … I really remember when many subjects and home economics were taught not only in the home or neighborhood stores and shops, but in the public schools! Many employers / recruiters hired directly from colleges throughout the city of Philadelphia before the 1980s and 90s …

Where did it all go?

“What is an algorithm?” … Is it true that it is a line of attack; Information, (A flow chart)?

‘Will’ and I asked ourselves, “What can we do about it?”

“What should we do … What should we do with it?”

“How can we change the place of education; the equation? Is there any other alternative for students and knowledge seekers, apart from creating a large amount of debt that comes from expensive college (s) and / or technical schools?”

These are the kind of questions that have made this writer an unstable writer …

“Well, I’m here to tell you … This author intends to do the best to continually promote and support educational endeavors for all …” by any means necessary! “… in this life or posthumously!”

Essays, articles, books, and social media posts posted by this author are designed to provide students and education seekers with a “Leg-up” on their pursuit of personal information and educational endeavors.

“It is this author’s commitment, my deep propensity to impossible to enroll in the annals of time and in the name of education and information, my contribution (s) to the practice of” Free Education and Self-Help “publication (s) for one and all – all over the globe and beyond! “

Pages 137 to 215, The Book; The 30th chapter of …

“What I know is …” ‘How to Understand Information Technology’

Some definitions of information technology from A to Z:

Example (s):

ActiveX:

A loosely defined set of technologies developed by Microsoft. ActiveX is a growth of two other Microsoft technologies called OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) and COM (Component Object Model). As a moniker, ActiveX can be very confusing because it applies to a whole set of COM-based technologies. However, most people only think of ActiveX controls, which represent a particular way of implementing ActiveX technologies.

Ad Hoc:

Description of the research group:

An ad hoc network is an autonomous system of routers (and associated hosts) connected to wireless links – whose association forms an arbitrary graph. The routers are free to move randomly and organize arbitrarily; The wireless topology of the network can thus change quickly and unpredictably. Such a network can operate independently or be connected to the larger Internet, which functions as a hybrid fixed / ad hoc network.

This group is engaged in the study of Ad hoc Network Systems (ANS). Ad hoc networks are complex systems with cross-layer protocol dynamics and interactions not present in wired systems, most prominent between the physical layers, link and network layers (IP). The IETF community and the wider research community could benefit from research into ad hoc network behavior that would enable advanced routing protocol development. This research group will endeavor to develop sufficient understanding in subject areas of interest to enable the desired protocol specification work.

ADO:

Short for ActiveX Data Objects, Microsoft’s latest high-level interface for data objects. ADO is designed to eventually replace Data Access Objects (DAO) and Remote Data Objects (RDO). Unlike RDO and DAO, which are designed to access relational databases only, ADO is more general and can be used to access all kinds of different types of data, including web pages, spreadsheets and other types of documents.

Together with OLE DB and ODBC, ADO is one of the main components of Microsoft’s Universal Data Access (UDA) specification, which is designed to provide a consistent way of accessing data no matter how the data is structured.

Total features:

MIN returns the smallest value in a given column MAX returns the largest value in a given column SUM returns the sum of the numeric values ​​in a given column AVG returns the average value of a given column COUNT returns the total number of values ​​in a given column COUNT (*) returns the number of rows in a table

Total functions are used to calculate a “returned numeric data column” from your SELECT statement. They basically summarize the results of a particular column of selected data.

AGP Advanced Graphic Port:

Short for Accelerated Graphics Port, an interface specification developed by Intel Corporation. AGP is based on PCI, but is specially designed for the flow-through requirements of 3D graphics. Instead of using the PCI bus for graphics data, AGP introduces a dedicated point-to-point channel, allowing the graphics controller to directly access the main memory. The AGP channel is 32 bits wide and runs at 66 MHz. This corresponds to a total bandwidth of 266 MBps; unlike the 133 MBps PCI bandwidth. AGP also supports two optional faster modes with 533 MBps and 1.07 GBps throughput. In addition, AGP allows 3D textures to be stored in main memory rather than in video memory.

AGP:

What is AGP?

Short for Accelerated Graphics Port, an interface specification developed by Intel Corporation. AGP is based on PCI, but is specially designed for the flow-through requirements of 3D graphics.

PCI:

Peripheral component Inter-Connect (functionality card).

algorithm:

An attack line; Information (flowchart).

(al´g & -rith- & m) (n.) A formula or set of steps to solve a particular problem. To be an algorithm, a set of rules must be unambiguous and have a clear stopping point. Algorithms can be expressed in any language, from natural languages ​​like English or French to programming languages ​​like FORTRAN.

We use algorithms every day. For example, a recipe for baking a cake is an algorithm. Most programs, with the exception of some artificial intelligence applications, consist of algorithms. The invention of elegant algorithms – algorithms that are simple and require few steps – is one of the biggest challenges in programming.

Genetic Algorithms Archive Repository for information related to research into genetic algorithms. Here you can find a calendar of events, back issues of the archive, links to related research sites, newsgroups and source code.

A study of what people are facing seems most attractive.

This was a study done to determine which types of faces are most attractive. This shows how a genetic algorithm can be used for a study of heredity over many generations. Algorithms for common programming problems

Provides algorithms for common programming problems. It also provides tips on how to implement these algorithms in various different languages. Demonstitution of genetic algorithm problem

This site illustrates the solution to the traveler seller problem – what is the best, most effective way for a traveler seller to travel through all states. The solutions were found by running a genetic algorithm. The problem is a classic question that is addressed by algorithms.

Analog: (adj.)

Also spelled analog, describe a unit or system that represents changing values ​​as continuously variable physical quantities. A typical analog device is a clock where the hands move continuously around the face. Such a clock is capable of indicating any possible time of day. In contrast, a digital clock is only capable of representing a finite number of times (for example, every tenth of a second). In general, people experience the world by analogy. Vision, for example, is an analogous experience because we perceive infinitely smooth gradations of shapes and colors. When used as a reference for data storage and transmission, the analog format is the format in which the information is transmitted by modulating a continuous transmission signal, such as amplifying a signal strength or changing its frequency to add or remove data. For example, phones take sound vibrations and transform them into electrical vibrations of the same shape before sending over traditional telephone lines. Radio wave transmissions work the same way. Computers that handle data in digital form require modems to turn signals from digital to analog before transmitting these signals over communication lines, such as telephone lines that carry only analog signals. The signals return to digital form (demodulated) at the receiving end, allowing the computer to process the data in its digital format.

ANSI:

Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute. Founded in 1918, ANSI is a voluntary organization made up of over 1,300 members (including all major computer companies) that sets standards for the computer industry. Eg. Is ANSI C a version of the C language approved by the ANSI Committee. To a large extent, all ANSI C compilers, regardless of the company producing them, must behave in a similar manner.

In addition to programming languages, ANSI sets standards for a wide range of technical areas, from electrical specifications to communication protocols. Eg. Is FDDI, the most important set of protocols for transmitting data via fiber optic cables, an ANSI standard.

National Committee for Information Technology Standards (NCITS) Contains information on NCITS efforts and involvement in market-driven, voluntary multimedia consensus standards, interconnection between computing devices, storage media, databases, security and programming languages.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Homepage Contains news, events, links to standard databases and links to education and training. Standardization – ANSI

Explains why ANSI and standardization are needed.

API:

Abbreviation of the “Application Program Interface”, a set of routines, protocols and tools for building software applications. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks. A programmer puts blocks together.

Most operating environments, such as MS-Windows, provide an API so that programmers can write applications that are compatible with the operating environment. Although APIs are designed for programmers, they are ultimately good for users because they guarantee that all programs that use a common API have similar interfaces. This makes it easier for users to learn new programs. DOS Protected Mode Interface (DPMI)

This is a programmer’s reference copy of DOS Protected Mode Interface, a protected API API specification for DOS extended applications. Microsoft Internet Server API (ISAPI) Information Page Provides a brief description of Microsoft’s Internet Server API (ISAPI) along with a link to CGI information.

APM:

Maps for Advanced Power Management, an API developed by Intel and Microsoft that allow developers to include power management in BIOSs. APM defines a layer between the hardware and the operating system that effectively protects the programmer from hardware details.

applet:

An applet is a small program designed to run in another application. Applets are useful on the Internet because once they are downloaded; they can be executed quickly in the user’s browser. More than one applet can be found in a single document, and they can communicate with each other as they work. Java is one of the most important languages ​​used to create web-based applets.

Application:

A program or group of programs designed for end users. Software can be divided into two general classes: system software and application software. System software consists of low-level programs that interact with the computer on a very basic level. This includes operating systems, compilers, and computer resource management tools.

In contrast, application software (also called end-user programs) includes database programs, text processors, and spreadsheets. Pictured, application software sits atop system software because it is unable to run without the operating system and system utilities.

argument:

When programming is a value that you pass on to a routine. For example, if SQRT is a routine that returns the square root of a value, SQRT (25) will return the value 5. The value 25 is the argument.

Argument is often used synonymously with parameter, although parameter can also mean any value that can be changed. In addition, some programming languages ​​distinguish between arguments sent only in one direction and parameters that can be sent back and forth, but this distinction is by no means universal.

An argument can also be an option for a command, in which case it is often called a command line argument.

Artificial intelligence:

The branch of computer science that deals with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Artificial intelligence includes

• games of play: programming of computers to play games such as chess and pieces

• expert systems: programming computers to make real-life decisions (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose disease based on symptoms)

• natural language: programming computers to understand natural human languages

• neural networks: systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains

• Robotics: programming computers to see and hear and respond to other sensory stimuli

At present, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (i.e., capable of simulating human behavior). The greatest advances have been made in the field of gaming. The best computer chess programs are now capable of beating people. In May 1997, an IBM supercomputer called Deep Blue defeated world champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match.

In robotics, computers are now widely used in assembly systems, but they are only capable of very limited tasks. Robots have great difficulty in identifying objects based on appearance or sensation, and they are still moving and handling objects clumsily.

Natural language processing offers the greatest potential benefits because it would allow people to interact with computers without the need for any specialized knowledge. You can just walk up to a computer and talk to it. Unfortunately, programming computers to understand natural languages ​​has proven to be more difficult than originally thought. Some rudimentary translation systems that translate from one human language to another exist, but they are not as good as human translators. There are also voice recognition systems that can convert spoken sounds into written words, but they do not understand what they are writing; they simply take dictation. Even these systems are quite limited – you need to speak slowly and clearly.

In the early 1980s, expert systems were meant to represent the future of artificial intelligence and computers in general. To date, however, they have not lived up to expectations. Many expert systems help human experts in fields such as medicine and engineering, but they are very expensive to manufacture and are only useful in special situations.

Today, the hottest area of ​​artificial intelligence is neural networks that are proving successful in a variety of disciplines such as voice recognition and natural language processing.

There are several programming languages ​​known as AI languages ​​because they are used almost exclusively for AI applications. The two most common are LISP and Prolog.

Numara Software:

Neural Network Helpdesk Software – Offers Track-It! help desk software for advanced problem solving, knowledge management and self-help / customer via the Internet.

Artificial Intelligence Information Resource – Business technology search site that offers software, service, reseller and hardware information on thousands of IT solutions and intelligent software products and vendors.

Searchable list of over 700 product abstractions for AI and intelligent software products. MIT artificial intelligence projects

American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Provides links to AAAI conferences, symposia, publications, workshops, resources, and information about the organization. MIT’s AI Lab homepage

SRI International Artificial Intelligence Center (AIC) Page Website for SRI International’s Artificial Intelligence Center (AIC), one of the world’s largest centers for artificial intelligence research. Here you can find information about their research programs, staff and publications.

Center for Neural Computing Applications (CNCA) The CNCA is a university research group dedicated to developing neural computers and SMART software solutions for real-world problems. The site contains project information, papers, comprehensive related links and updated information in the AI ​​/ neural computing world. Outsider’s Guide to AI Contains AI history, information on the LISP language, natural language processing, hardware, expert systems, human behavior, message filtering, robotics and an AI timeline.

AS (AS / 400):

Acronym for the autonomous system

An Autonomous System (AS) is a group of networks under mutual administration that share the same routing methodology. An AS uses an internal gateway protocol and common metrics to route packets within AS and uses an external gateway protocol to route packets to other autonomous systems.

ASCII:

Abbreviation for the American Standard for Information Exchange.

Pronounced ask-AS, ASCII is a code to represent English characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127? For example, the ASCII capitalization code is M 77.

Most computers use ASCII codes to represent text, which allows data to be transferred from one computer to another.

Text files saved in ASCII format are sometimes called ASII files. Text editors and word processors are usually able to store data in ASCII format, although ASCII format is not always the default storage format. Most data files, especially if they contain numeric data, are not stored in ASCII format. Executable programs are never saved in ASCII format.

The standard ASCII character set uses only 7 bits for each character. There are several larger character sets that use 8 bits, giving them 128 extra characters. The extra characters are used to represent non-English characters, graphic symbols and mathematical symbols.

Several companies and organizations have proposed extensions to these 128 characters. The DOS operating system uses a superset of ASCII called extended ASCII or high ASCII. A more universal standard is the ISO Latin 1 set of characters used by many operating systems as well as web browsers.

Another set of codes used on large IBM computers is EBCDIC.

ASIC:

Pronounced ay-sik and short for Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, a chip designed for a specific application (unlike the integrated circuits that control functions such as RAM on a PC). ASICs are built by connecting existing circuit building blocks in new ways. Since the building blocks already exist in a library, it is much easier to produce a new ASIC than to design a new chip from scratch.

ASICs are often used in automobile computers to control vehicle functions and PDAs.

ASM:

Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is a feature of Oracle Database 10g that provides the database administrator with a simple storage management interface that is consistent across all server and storage platforms. As a vertically integrated file system and volume management, built specifically for Oracle database files, ASM provides the performance of async I / O with easy management of a file system. ASM provides capabilities that save DBAs time and provide flexibility to manage a dynamic database environment with increased efficiency.

ATA:

Abbreviated for Advanced Technology Attachment, a disk drive implementation that integrates the controller on the disk drive itself. There are several versions of ATA, all developed by the Small Form Factor Committee (SFF):

• ATA: Also known as IDE, supports one or two hard drives, a 16-bit interface, and PIO modes 0, 1, and 2.

• ATA-2: Supports faster PIO modes (3 and 4) and multiword DMA modes (1 and 2). Also supports logical block addressing (LBA) and block transfers. ATA-2 is marketed as Fast ATA and Enhanced IDE (EIDE).

• ATA-3: Minor revision of ATA-2.

• Ultra-ATA: Also called Ultra-DMA, ATA-33 and DMA-33, multiword supports DMA mode 3 running at 33 MBps.

• ATA / 66: A version of ATA proposed by Quantum Corporation and supported by Intel that doubles ATA’s output to 66 MBps.

• ATA / 100: An updated version of ATA / 66 that increases data transfer rates to 100 MBps. ATA is also called Parallel ATA. Contrast with serial ATA.

ATA is also called Parallel ATA. Contrast with serial ATA.

Backplane: (backplane) (n.)

A circuit board containing sockets to which other circuit boards can be inserted. In the case of PCs, the term backplane refers to the large circuit containing sockets for expansion cards.

Rear aircraft are often described as either active or passive. Active rear airplanes contain, in addition to the connectors, logic circuits that perform computer functions. In contrast, passive tailplanes contain almost no computer circuitry. Traditionally, most PCs have used active rear airplanes. In fact, the terms motherboard and backplane have been synonymous. Recently, however, there has been a move towards passive rear-flying machines, with the active components such as the CPU inserted on an additional card. Passive back plans make it easier to repair defective components and upgrade to new components.

bandwidth:

(1) Arrange in a band of frequencies or wavelengths.

(2) The amount of data that can be transmitted over a fixed period of time. For digital digital devices, bandwidth is usually expressed in bits per minute. Second (bps) or bytes per second. For analog devices, the bandwidth is expressed in cycles per second. Second or Hertz (Hz).

Bandwidth is especially important for I / O devices. For example, a fast disk drive can be hampered by a low bandwidth bus. This is the main reason why new buses, such as AGP, have been developed for the PC.

bandwidth:

What is Bandwidth?

The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time.

bitmap

A bitmap is a collection of pixels that describe an image, in human terms, a complete image. A bitmap can have different bit depths and resolution. Basically, a bitmap is a series of pixels.

A representation of rows and columns with dots of a graphic image in the computer memory. The value of each dot (whether filled or not) is stored in one or more bits of data. For simple monochrome images, one bit is sufficient to represent each dot, but for colors and grayscale, each dot requires more than one bit of data. The more bits used to represent a dot, the more colors and shades of grayscale that can be represented.

The density of the dots, known as the resolution, determines how sharp the image is represented. This is often expressed in dots per minute. Empty (dpi) or just by the number of rows and columns, such as 640 by 480.

To view a mapped map on a screen or to print it on a printer, the computer translates the bitmap into pixels (for screens) or ink dots (for printers). Optical scanners and fax machines work by converting text or images on paper into bitmaps.

Bitmapped graphics are often called raster graphics. The second method of representing images is known as vector graphics or object oriented graphics. With vector graphics, images are represented as mathematical formulas that define all shapes in the image. Vector graphics are more flexible than bitmap graphics because they look similar even when you scale them to different sizes. In contrast, the bitmap graphics become uneven when you shrink or enlarge them.

Fonts represented by vector graphics are called scalable fonts, contour fonts, or vector fonts. The best-known example of a vector writing system is Post Script. Bitmapped fonts, also called raster fonts, must be designed for a specific device and size and resolution.

A representation of rows and columns with dots of a graphic image in the computer memory. The value of each dot (whether filled or not) is stored in one or more bits of data. For simple monochrome images, one bit is sufficient to represent each dot, but for colors and shades of gray, each dot requires more than one bit of data. The more bits used to represent a dot, the more colors and grayscale can be represented.

The density of the dots, known as the resolution, determines how sharp the image is represented. This is often expressed in dots per minute. Empty (dpi) or just by the number of rows and columns, such as 640 by 480.

To view a mapped map on a screen or to print it on a printer, the computer translates the bitmap into pixels (for screens) or ink dots (for printers). Optical scanners and fax machines work by converting text or images on paper into bitmaps.

Bitmapped graphics are often called raster graphics. The second method of representing images is known as vector graphics or object oriented graphics. With vector graphics, images are represented as mathematical formulas that define all shapes in the image. Vector graphics are more flexible than bitmap graphics because they look similar even when you scale them to different sizes. In contrast, the bitmap graphics become uneven when you shrink or enlarge them.

Fonts represented by vector graphics are called scalable fonts, contour fonts, or vector fonts. The best-known example of a vector writing system is Post Script. Bit-mapped fonts, also called raster fonts, must be designed for a specific device and size and resolution.

BOOLEAN: A form of algebra where all values ​​are reduced to either true or false.

Ex: 2 <5 (2islessthan5), is Boolean because the result is true.

BPDU:

Abbreviation for Bridge Protocol Data Unit. BPDUs are data messages that are exchanged across the switches in an extended LAN using an exciting tree protocol topology. BPDU packets contain information about ports, addresses, priorities and costs and ensure that the data ends where they were intended to go. BPDU messages are exchanged across bridges to detect loops in a network topology. The loops are then removed by closing selected bridge interfaces and placing redundant switch ports in abackup or blocked mode.

Understanding the Spanning Tree Protocol Cisco Systems provides this technically heavy analysis of how the Spanning Tree Protocol works.

BPM:

Brief for Business Process Management It is a term that describes activities and (or) events that are performed to optimize a business process. These activities are assisted with software tools. The set ypes of software tools are also called BPM tools.

Business Intelligence:

Most companies collect a large amount of data from their business operations.

To keep track of this information, a company needs to use a wide variety of software programs, such as Excel, Access, and various database applications for various departments throughout their organization. Using multiple software programs makes it difficult to retrieve information in a timely manner and perform an analysis of the data.

The term Business Intelligence (BI) represents the tools and systems that play a key role in the company’s strategic planning process. These systems allow a company to collect, store, access and analyze business data to assist in decision making. In general, these systems illustrate business surveys in customer profiling, customer support, market research, market segmentation, product profitability, statistical analysis and inventory and distribution analysis to name a few.

C:

A high-level programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the mid-1970s.

Skønt oprindeligt designet som et systemprogrammeringssprog, har ‘C’ vist sig at være et kraftfuldt og fleksibelt sprog, der kan bruges til forskellige applikationer, fra forretningsprogrammer til teknik. C er et særligt populært sprog for personlige computerprogrammører, fordi det er relativt lille – det kræver mindre hukommelse end andre sprog. Det første store program, der blev skrevet i C, var operativsystemet UNIX, og i mange år blev C betragtet som ekstremt forbundet med UNIX. Nu er C imidlertid et vigtigt sprog uafhængigt af UNIX.

Selvom det er et sprog på højt niveau, er C meget tættere på samlingssprog end de fleste andre sprog på højt niveau. Denne nærhed til det underliggende maskinsprog giver C-programmerere mulighed for at skrive meget effektiv kode. C-niveauet på lavt niveau kan imidlertid gøre sproget vanskeligt at bruge til nogle typer applikationer.

Disse eksempler er blot et par repræsentationer af, hvad du finder i denne “Selvhjælp” -bog med teknisk information … “IT / BI!”

Within the pages of this particular book, the text therein will give the Student or Information Seeker highly valued resource(s). It is with the greatest hope that this information/data is of value to you the ‘STUDENT’ and the ‘READER’ alike.

(not quite the) End.

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