The Mystery Of Our (Mostly) Missing Universe

Almost 14 billion years ago, our universe burst to life in the form of an unimaginably small soup of tightly packed, red-hot particles, commonly referred to as “the fireball.” Spacetime has since been expanding – and cooling – from this original gorgeous, fiery, eye-catching state. But what is our universe made of and how has its composition evolved over time? It is often said that most of our universe is “missing” because it is largely made up of a mysterious substance we call dark energy. The elusive dark energy causes our universe to accelerate in its relentless expansion, and it is generally believed to be the property of space itself. In August 2017, scientists announced that they now have a new window from which they can study the mysterious properties of our universe, thanks to an international collaboration of more than 400 scientists, the so-called Dark Energy Survey (DES), which helps shed new light on the mysterious structure of our most missing Cosmos.

On a grand scale, the entire universe looks the same everywhere we look – with a foamy, sparkly appearance, with extremely heavy filaments braiding themselves around each other and weaving a web-like structure appropriately Cosmic web. The filaments of the Cosmic web sparkle with the bright fires of many stars that outline huge sheets and intertwined braids that house the star-lit galaxies of the visible universe. Hugely dark, empty – or almost empty–Voids interrupt this weird, twisting, transparent web-like structure. The Voids contain few galaxies, so they seem almost completely empty. In dramatic contrast, the heavy, star-studded filaments that make up the Cosmic web, weave themselves around these dark caverns to create a complex, twisted image button.

We live in a mysterious universe – most of which we cannot see. The galaxies, galaxies, and superclusters are all confined to halos composed of invisible non-atomic dark matter. This unidentified material knits the heavy filaments of the big ones Cosmic web to a remarkable carpet that extends all over Spacetime. Scientists are almost sure that the dark matter really exists because of the observable gravitational influence on those objects and structures that can be seen – such as stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters and superclusters.

The most recent measurements suggest that our universe exists for about 70% dark energy and 25% dark matter. As of today the origin and nature of the mysterious dark matter and dark energy remain elusive. A much smaller percentage of our universe consists of the badly misnamed name “just” atomic matter – the trusted material that is all in the Periodic table. Ordinary matter – which is truly extraordinary material – is relatively scarce in the cosmos. However, this part of the Cosmic Nest of Three is what makes up the stars, planets, moons, humans and the rest of the universe that humans experience as familiar. It is also the precious material through which life in our universe could arise and evolve.

The cosmos may be even more bizarre than we can imagine. Modern scientific cosmology began with Albert Einstein applying his theories in the early decades of the 20th century RelativelySpecial (1905) and General (1915) – to our “Cosmic Habitat”. At the beginning of the 20th century, our Milky Way was believed to be the whole Universe, and it was also thought that the universe was both static and eternal. However, we now know differently.

Our universe is doing evolve over time, and there is a lot, a lot of more of the vast cosmos than our own home system. It is generally believed that the universe was born about 13.8 billion years ago, when space itself tore apart, in case scientists Inflationary Big Bang. At the time of its mysterious birth, in the smallest fraction of a second, the Universe expanded exponentially to balloon to macroscopic size – starting as an incredibly small patch smaller than a proton. Spacetime has expanded since this initial brilliant state and has been cooling down ever since. All galaxies drift away from each other and our universe has no center. Indeed, everything drifts away from everything else, due to the expansion of Spacetime. The expansion of the universe is often compared to a leavened raisin bread. The dough expands and takes the raisins for the ride. The raisins are increasingly separated from each other by expanding the dough.

Georges Henri Joseph Edouard Lemaitre (1894-1966) was a Belgian astronomer, priest and professor of physics at the Catholic University of Leuven. Lemaitre was one of the first to suggest that our universe is not static – that it is expanding. He also formulated the theory that ultimately the Big Bang Universe. Lemaitre once said: “The evolution of the world can be compared to an end to fireworks: a few wisps, ashes and smoke. When we stand on a cooled cinder, we see the fading of the suns slowly and we try to clear the vanished to remember the brilliance of the worlds. “

When we refer to the perceptible, or visibleUniverse we refer to the relatively small area of ​​the entire universe that we can observe. The rest – the lion’s share of it – is far away, far beyond what we call cosmological horizon. The light traveling towards us from those incredibly remote areas of Spacetime, far beyond horizon of our visibility, has not had enough time to reach us since the Big Bang because of the expansion of the universe. No known signal can travel faster than light in a vacuum, and this poses something of a universal speed limit that has made it impossible for us to observe these extremely remote domains of Spacetime directly.

The temperature in that original primal fireball was almost uniform. This very small deviation from perfect uniformity resulted in the formation of everything we are and everything we could ever know. Before the Inflation occurred, that extremely small primitive plaster was completely homogeneous, smooth and appeared to be the same in all directions. It is generally thought that Inflation Explains how that completely smooth and homogeneous patch started to wrinkle.

The extremely small fluctuations, the primal ripples in Spacetime, occurred in the smallest units that we can measure (quantum). The theory of Inflation Explains how these quantum fluctuations in the smooth and isotropic baby universe would eventually grow into large-scale structures such as galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. To the deceased Dr. To paraphrase Carl Sagan of Cornell University, we are the eyes of the universe seeing itself. But of course there was nothing with eyes to see in these first moments of Spacetime’s birth.

The weird quantum world is a frothy, nervous arena, where absolutely nothing can stay perfectly still. The originally smooth and isotropic universe formed small hills and valleys. The valleys eventually became army and army; the hills higher and heavier. This is due to gravity. Gravity drew the original material from the baby universe into the heavier hills, which eventually extracted more and more of the matter from the primordial soup. The impoverished plains, devoid of the same powerful gravity that the hills possessed, became increasingly barren of this ancient broth. As time went on, larger and larger structures formed in the richer and more massive hills of our universe. This is because the hills became more and more powerfully attractive to the primal material – and the heavier the hills became, the more powerful their attraction became. The large-scale structure of the universe began as small variations in the density of matter in the ancient cosmos. Some Spacetime domains received a much higher matter density than others, simply due to pure chance. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer, due to nervous quantum fluctuations. The distribution of wealth in the universe is completely arbitrary. Powerful attraction has caused more and more matter to clump together in the richer areas of the Cosmos.

Universe disappeared “missing”

Two future space missions depend on data derived from it DES: The European Space Agency (ESA) Euclid mission (which has a significant NASA participation) and that of NASA Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission. Both space missions are expected to launch in the 2020s and are designed to explore the myriad mysteries of the mysterious nature of the universe.

“With this study, we show what will be possible with these much more complex observatories,” said Dr. Andres Plazas Malagon on August 4, 2017 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) press release. Dr. Malagon is a postdoctoral researcher at JPL who helped characterize DES’s Dark Energy Camera detectors and which also participated in detector surveys for FIRST. The JPL is located in Pasadena, California.

According to Albert Einstein’s Theory of general relativitygravity should slow the rate of expansion of the universe. However, in 1998, two teams of astronomers observing distant supermovas made the surprising discovery that the universe is not slowing at all – in fact it accelerates! To explain this puzzling observation, scientific cosmologists were forced to face two possibilities: either 70% of the universe has an exotic shape, now called dark energy, or General relativity should be replaced with a new theory of how gravity works on cosmic scales.

DES is designed to search for the origin of the accelerating universe and the true nature of it dark energy by measuring with precision the 14 billion-year-old history of universal expansion. More than 400 scientists from more than 25 institutions in the United States, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Spain, Germany, Switzerland and Australia are participating in this project. The partnership has built a highly sensitive 570-megapixel digital camera called dubbed DECammounted on the White 4 meters telescope on the The 4 meter long optical observatory Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, situated high in the Chilean Andes. The derived data are processed on the National supercomputing applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

In five years (2013-2018), the DES Collaboration uses 525 observation nights to conduct an in-depth, broad survey to capture new information about 300 million galaxies billions of light years from our planet. The survey depicts 5,000 square degrees of the southern sky in five optical filters to obtain detailed information about each galaxy being targeted. A fraction of the research time is used to study smaller regions of the sky about once a week to discover and observe thousands of supernovae and other forms of astrophysical transients.

The most recent leading models of the universe indicate that it mainly consists of the dark energy and dark matter. The dark matter plays the role of an “invisible glue” that holds galaxies and galaxy clusters together with its powerful gravitational pull, while the dark energy is believed to be responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Some of the best scientific predictions for the quantity dark matter and dark energy in the Cosmos come from the ESAs Planck satellite, which perceives the light emitted about 400,000 years after the Big Bang.

The Mystery Of The (Mostly) Missing Universe

The DES you have studied the composition of the more mature Universe. The new results show that there is agreement with predictions made using Planck measurements of the universe’s baby time. This finding helps cosmologists gain a new understanding of how the universe has evolved since the Big Bang. The DES findings were presented at the Department of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society (APS) meeting held in the United States Department of Energy Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois.

‘The Planck results were milestones in cosmology. It’s really amazing that you have a model that describes the universe at 400,000 years old, and now we have an equally accurate measurement of the universe at 13 billion years [old] that conforms to the model, “said Dr. Tim Eifler of JPL on August 4, 2017 JPL press release. Dr. Eifler led the DES analysis team that has developed the scientific software for the interpretation of the results.

The measurements show that about 70% of the universe in the dark energy, about 25% is in the dark matter, and that the rest is composed of “ordinary” atomic matter – the “runt” of the cosmic litter. All three measurements correspond to other accurate measurements taken so far. On this point DES has found no evidence that the quantity dark energy You have changed over time. This finding is consistent with Albert Einstein’s idea of ​​a cosmological constant. Einstein first proposed the concept of one cosmological constant, usually symbolized by the Greek letter lambda (^), as a mathematical solution for General relativity.

The results are of great interest to scientific cosmologists because they demonstrate for the first time that observations of the more recent universe, using gravity lensing and galaxy clustering, can produce results as accurate as those obtained from the cosmic background radiation (CMB). The CMB is the primordial light that lingers from the ‘young’ universe.

Gravity lensing is a distribution of matter (such as galaxy clusters) located between a distant light source and an observer. The foreground object (the lens) bends the light from the background source, while the traveling light wanders towards the observer. Gravity lensing can reveal the presence of the invisible, ghostly dark matterbecause gravity bends, distorts, and expands the path of light, making its way through space from a background object.

“This is the crossroads true gravity lensing and clustering of galaxies measurements and research will be the main driver of what we know dark energy in the Universe, “noted Dr. Eric Huff on August 4, 2017 JPL press release. Dr. Huff is a JPL researcher who has come up with a new method for the weak lensing signal that the precision of the DES galaxies catalogs. The findings come from the first year dataset provided by the DES, with help from White telescope.

Around the dark matter, the researchers first made maps of galaxy positions. They then measured the shapes of 26 million galaxies to map patterns directly dark matter more than billions of light years gravity lensing and clustering of galaxies.

The DES scientists then developed new methods to detect the very small lensing distortions that appear on the images of the galaxy. In doing so, they created the largest guide ever drawn to help scientists detect the mysterious universe dark matter. The new dark matter card is 10 times the size of the card DES was already released in 2015 – and it continues to grow. The DES plans to publish a dataset that is even five times larger in the next two years.

Dr. Eifler responded on August 4, 2017 JPL press release: “There’s a sense of real discovery in the collaboration. For the first time, we’ve got the data and tools to see if Einstein’s cosmological constant prevails. We are all excited to explore the physical nature of it dark energy. In particular, we want to see if there are any hints in the data suggesting that gravity laws need to be changed on the largest scales in the universe. “



Source by Judith E Braffman-Miller